The City Is An Object And A City Is In Transition
With the advent of the post-industrial era in China, the regeneration of industrial heritages has been increasingly recognized as a significant and urgent topic in the agenda of urban renewal, especially in mega-cities like Shanghai. The industrial buildings in the industrial areas alongside the Huangpu River, on the one hand, recall the old industrial memory of the city, while on the other hand, act as heterogeneous and isolative patches in the waterfront urban fabric due to their oversized volumes and rigidly closed borders. Thus, in the regeneration process of these industrial heritage, in order to turn the enclosed object to opening space, change the situation from dichotomy to dialogue and eventually aid in enhancing urban vitality, the design strategy of border space is especially worth concerning. Through morphological analysis of selected cases of renovated industrial heritages in Shanghai, fundamental components of architectural interface are extracted. Meanwhile, based on Jan Gehl's Public Space - Public Life (PSPL) research method, this paper presents the results of several PSPL surveys on selected regeneration projects. To analyze the influences that different interfaces cast on people’s activities, a diagrammatic analysis of the PSPL surveys using behavioral heat map is proposed. In conclusion, effective design guidelines of transforming “border to interface” on an urban scale are summarized as reference for future projects of industrial heritage regeneration.
Type of the Paper: Peer-reviewed Conference Paper/ Short Paper
Track title: the city is an object and a city is in transition
From Border to Interface: Evaluating the Design Strategies in the Regeneration of Industrial Heritage Projects in Shanghai from the Perspective of Public Space - Public Life
Yifan Dong 1, Jingwen Gan 2 and Huaqing Huang 3,*
Names of the track editors:
Leo van den Burg
Submitted: 07 October 2021
Citation: Dong, Y., Gan, J. & Huang, H. (2021). From Border to Interface: Evaluating the Design Strategies in the Regeneration of Industrial Heritage Projects in Shanghai from the Perspective of Public Space - Public Life. The Evolving Scholar | IFoU 14th Edition.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY-ND (CC BY-ND) license.
©2021 [Dong, Y., Gan, J. & Huang, H.] published by TU Delft OPEN on behalf of the authors.
1 Nanjing University; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Nanjing University; email@example.com
3 Nanjing University; firstname.lastname@example.org
1) Diagrammatic analysis is used to reveal certain invisible pattern between pedestrian’s behaviors and architectural interfaces.
2) Tracking study based on Public Space – Public Life theory is adopted as the main research method.
3) Effective design guidelines of architectural interface are concluded as reference for future projects of industrial heritage regeneration.
Keywords: urban renewal; regeneration of industrial heritage; architectural interface; public space – public life
With the advent of the post-industrial era in China, the regeneration of industrial heritages has been increasingly recognized as a significant and urgent topic in the agenda of urban renewal, especially in mega-cities like Shanghai. Since 2002, Shanghai has started the regeneration of historical industrial areas alongside the Huangpu River with the goal of transforming the closed river banks into open public space by 2035 (Zhang, 2019). The industrial buildings in these areas, on the one hand, recall the old industrial memory of the city, while on the other hand, act as heterogeneous and isolative patches in the waterfront urban fabric due to their oversized volumes and rigidly closed borders. As Christopher Alexander believes - “The machine-like building is cut off from its surroundings, isolated, an island. The building with a lively building edge is connected, part of the social fabric, part of the town, part of the lives of all the people who live and move around it...” (Alexander, 1979, p.754). In the case of the regeneration of industrial heritages, in order to turn the enclosed objects into open space without altering their distinctive monolithic volumes, the design strategy of border space is especially worth concerning.
By the end of 2017, 45km of waterfront public space on both sides of the Huangpu River had been connected, and a significant portion of the waterfront industrial heritages have been renovated at both architectural and functional levels. They provide numerous cases for evaluating the effectiveness of interface design strategies. Based on Jan Gehl's Public Space - Public Life (PSPL) research method, this paper presents the results of several PSPL surveys on selected regeneration projects. To analyze the influences that different interfaces cast on people’s activities, a diagrammatic analysis of the PSPL surveys using behavioral heat map is proposed. In conclusion, effective design guidelines of transforming “border to interface” on an urban scale are summarized as reference for future projects of industrial heritage regeneration.
2. Theories and Methods
Through morphological analysis of selected cases of renovated industrial heritages in Shanghai, basic components of architectural interface are extracted. Furthermore, based on a geometric framework of point, line and plane, these components are classified to systematically describe different architectural interfaces – point-like entrance and landmark, linear transparent enclosure and opaque enclosure, and plane-like semi-outdoor space and slope (Table 1).
Table 1. Components of architectural interface
|Point||Landmark||Extremely prominent object, especially the exposed old industrial mechanical construction|
|Entrance||Entrance for the public|
|Slope||Ramps and grand stairs that open to the public|
In order to analyze the effectiveness of different interfaces in improving public interactions, this paper focuses on pedestrian behavior when they pass through the architectural interfaces. Fieldwork is thus adopted as the main method to obtain data for analysis. According to Jan Gehl, in low-quality outdoor space, only necessary activities take place, but in high-quality outdoor space, despite the probability of necessary activity is unchanged in general, the duration of them has a tendency to extend and spontaneous behaviors ensue (Gehl, 1987). Thus, the walking speed is taken as the indicator of the overall effectiveness of the interface and spontaneous behaviors including turning head to look at the building, heading up to look at the building, staying somewhere near the architectural interface and taking photos are recorded to reflect the quality of the interface more subtly.
After the fieldwork, the spots where different spontaneous behaviors take place are overlaid on the masterplan of selected cases, and according to the density of the spots, heat maps of pedestrian behaviors are obtained. With the analysis of the composition of interface based on the point-line-plane framework, the heat maps can thus reveal certain invisible patterns between pedestrian behaviors and the architectural interface. As a result, effective strategies of interface design are concluded at the morphological level.
3.1. Case study
This paper conducts detailed field research on three projects, namely Yicang Modern Art Museum (MAM), 1862 Old Shipyard (Mifa) and Green Hill (GH), which all share the problems of oversized volumes and closed borders commonly found in industrial buildings (Figure 1).
The design strategies of the three projects represent three typical approaches to heritage renovation: MAM adds to the volume, Mifa maintains the original one and GH subtracts from it. MAM retains the structural framework of the coal bunkers, with floor slabs and outdoor ramps suspended on the outside, "not only complete the circulation of an exhibition space in the coal bunker, but also build a public connection towards the Huangpu River landscape with its horizontal order, which was lacking in the original enclosed warehouse " (Liu, 2019, p.30) (Figure 2-a). Mifa infills the interior of the original shipyard and restores the façade, preserving the chimney as a symbol of industrial heritage, while translating the terracotta brick skin into a modern language. GH removes the walls and cuts the structural frames diagonally towards the waterfront and the urban space respectively, "to dissipate the oppressiveness of the building form on the waterfront" and "to create a dynamic that leads the urban public space towards the waterfront"(Zhang, Zhang, Zhang, & Qin, 2020, p.3). With a primitive roughness, a “hilly city” is formed by the original coarse concrete frame and the large amount of greenery (Figure 2-c). Unfortunately, the huge grass slope on the northwest side is not open to the public due to the construction of the adjacent site.
Figure 1. Basic information of selected cases
Figure 2. Composition of interface based on the point-line-plane framework and the path of pedestrians
The tracking studies were carried out between 4pm and 6pm on fine autumn days. For each building interface in the selected cases, 200 pedestrians were randomly followed, whose behaviors were recorded on their path and walking speed was measured. In addition, a section of the waterfront walkway connecting the building interface was selected to measure the pedestrian's walking speed as a comparison.
Table 2. Pedestrians’ average walking speed of passing through different interfaces
|Length/m||Average Speed/m*s-1||Length/m||Average Speed/m*s-1||Length/m||Average Speed/m*s-1|
|Interface connected to the waterfront walkway||93.0||0.978||200.0||0.913||46.8||0.919|
|Interface perpendicular to the waterfront walkway||38.4||0.959||44.5||0.915||36.6||1.027|
|Interface facing the city||112.3||1.039||200.0||1.172||36.6||1.148|
3.2. Result analysis
Based on the point-line-plane framework, abstract composition models of the three cases are extracted (Figure 2). Meanwhile, behavioral heat maps were made based on four types of pedestrian behaviors on passing through the building interfaces (Figure 3). Combining the heat maps, the walking speed data and the interface composition, some patterns between the interface components and the impact of the interface were summarized.
The influence of point-like elements is closely linked to a comfortable field of vision.
"Our sense of sight is well developed straight ahead and to the sides... But of the world above us, we see very little." (Gehl, 2006, p.32). The heat map of Mifa confirms this. Comparing Figure 3. b-2 with Figure 3. c-2, when walking on the waterfront walkway adjacent to the building interface, people are more interested in the first level of the interface, especially the entrances, than the industrial-looking landmark high above them. For GH, comparing Figure 3. b-3 with Figure 3. c-3, the landmark on the higher level is also attractive as the ground floor interface due to the receding building form (Figure 2. c) which makes it visible to pedestrians when approaching the interface by raising their eyes slightly along the building setback.
The properties of the linear elements are most relevant to the linear roaming path of pedestrians. Therefore, the quality of the linear elements determines the pedestrians’ interaction with the interfaces and also influences their walking speed.
In general, open and transparent linear interfaces are more vibrant. All the three buildings have a commercial program of restaurants or cafes on the ground floor, creating rich interactions with pedestrians. For example, most of the restaurants in Mifa beside the waterfront have permeable curtain walls with outdoor cafes, effectively attracting views and stays (Figure 3. a-2, Figure 3. b-2). On the contrary, the side closer to the city retains more of the factory's original trusses and displays a non-transparent façade with some mostly specialized retails, so the interaction with pedestrians is less frequent and the average speed of pedestrians is much higher (Table 2). It is worth noting that the ground floor interface of MAM is mostly glazed with highly reflective glass, which reduces internal and external permeability, but increases its attractiveness to interactions due to its mirrored effect, especially on the short side of the building (Figure 3. a-1, Figure 3. b-1). It also slows down the pedestrians’ walking speed (Table 2).
Plane-like elements are important in stimulating activities, but only their combination with linear or point-like elements is a guarantee of their attractiveness.
The combination of a flat linear interface and recessed semi-outdoor space creates a sense of rhythm that is highly attractive to the pedestrians, such as the two recessed entrances with semi-outdoor space on the waterfront interface of Mifa (Figure 3. b-2) and the passage through the street in GH (Figure 3. b-3); whereas the relatively homogeneous and continuous under-corridor space lacks objects to make people stop and gaze, as in the case of the MAM. Whether or not the architects intended it to be, this interface, with its sculptural form, discreetly gives way to the riverfront plaza, which is a lively sightseeing space rich in activities and high pedestrian flow in the evening.
The combination of the slope and the landmark brings a strong dynamic to the riverside frontage of GH. The slope and the stairs provide a clear path to the landmark, and the attractiveness of the landmark creates an incentive for pedestrians to climb the slope. Therefore, lots of pedestrians tend to gather here, stop and take photographs (Figure 3. a-3, Figure 3. d-3). However, the grass slope facing the city is significantly less vibrant because it is blocked by the fence. The architect's intention to extend the public life of the city to the riverfront is not fully realized. Interestingly, at its interface facing the urban streets, the number of people coming specifically by taxi is literally higher than those directly attracted from streets, reflecting that the status of GH is considered more a landmark than a public space of neighborhood to some extent. There is also a similar pity for MAM. Although many visitors were attracted to the waterfront ramp to roam and take photographs (Figure 3. d-1), the connection between the ramp and the upper corridor was locked for management reasons, so the intention to connect the upper levels to the waterfront was not realized.
Figure 3. Behavioral heat map of selected cases
4. Discussion and conclusions:
The walking speed of people rambling along the riverside slows down to varying degrees as they pass through the architectural interface of regenerated industrial heritage (Table 2). From a general perspective, slower walking speed proves that all the three cases have positive influences on the spatial quality of the riverside. From a closer perspective, some of the patterns summarized above may directly provide effective design strategies for other regeneration projects of industrial heritage in the future.
The retention of industrial elements in some industrial heritage requires consideration as to whether there are suitable viewing points and whether they are in a comfortable visual range of pedestrians due to the relation with visual attractiveness.
A transparent interface on the ground floor, like the glass curtain wall, is an effective strategy of slowing pedestrian walking speed and promoting public activity around it.
Compared to setting the entrance on a flat interface, the rhythmic variation of the interface created by placing the entrance in a concave semi-outdoor space on a flat interface generates more attractions.
People are likely to have an inclination to view the river from a higher place. The slope is therefore a natural attraction for people strolling along the river.
Combining landmark and slope is a strong and valid gesture to attract people to explore the building.
The gap between architectural design and operational management should not be neglected, which may prevent the design intention from being fully realized.
From the dichotomy between the industrial heritage and the waterfront space, to the lively social activities taking place around the regenerated heritage on the riverside, the importance and potential of the regeneration of industrial heritages is self-evident. From the perspective of PSPL, this study analyses the regenerated industrial projects that have already been put into use, and draws out certain patterns between the architectural interface and pedestrian behavior, providing a micro-scale perspective for the design and evaluation of buildings and their public realms.
Undoubtedly, the PSPL research method can reflect the public life of urban spaces truly and vividly, and it is also a compensate for the distortion of big data urban analytical method at the microscopic scale. However, as the study is mainly based on the direct observation of the researcher, it is difficult to eradicate the researcher's subjective judgement. Therefore, in order to obtain valid analysis data, the researcher needs to have as much experience as possible in public life observation. As for the analysis of data collected by PSPL survey, other than the heat map of behavior proposed here by using the density of behaviors to simulate a heat map through geometrical fitting, future research may also be based on computational analytical methods such as numerical fitting and machine learning.
Yifan Dong: Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Visualization, Writing – Original Draft
Jingwen Gan: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Visualization, Writing – Original Draft
Huaqing Huang: Conceptualization, Supervision, Writing – Review & Editing
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