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Worldwide trends in brain research: A bibliometric analysis

21/04/2023| By
Marc-André Marc-André Simard,
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Vincent Vincent Larivière
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Abstract

Over the last 80 years, brain research has gained a lot of traction, with recent advances such as the sequencing of the human genome, the development of tools for mapping neuronal connections, the improvement of neuroimaging technology, and the rise of nanoscience. This paper aims to determine how brain research has evolved over time in terms of papers and impact among countries, and how those various trends vary by areas of brain research. Our results show that over the past 30 years, the number of brain-related papers has grown at a faster pace than the number of papers from all disciplines combined with China being at the forefront of this growth. Different patterns of specializations among countries and funders have also emerged.

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Worldwide trends in brain research: A bibliometric analysis

Marc-André Simard*, Julia Segal**, Toni Saari***, Diego Kozlowski*, Catherine E. Ferland**, and Vincent Larivière*, ****

*marc-andre.simard.1@umontreal.ca; diego.kozlowski@uni.lu

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3795-0053; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5396-3471

École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information, Université de Montréal, 3150 rue Jean-Brillant, Montréal, QC, Canada

**julia.segal@braincanada.ca; catherine.ferland@braincanada.ca

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4127-4262

Brain Canada Foundation, 1200 McGill College Avenue Suite 1600, Montreal, Qc, Canada

***toni.saari@helsinki.fi

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7721-3336

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, PL 20 (Tukholmankatu 8), 00014, Helsinki, Finland

Department of Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

****vincent.lariviere@umontreal.ca

Observatoire des sciences et des technologies, Université du Québec à Montréal, Pavillon Paul-Gérin-Lajoie, 1205 rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, Québec, H2X 3R9 (Canada)

School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, D.M. Smith Building, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332 - 0345 (USA)

Over the last 80 years, brain research has gained a lot of traction, with recent advances such as the sequencing of the human genome, the development of tools for mapping neuronal connections, the improvement of neuroimaging technology, and the rise of nanoscience. This paper aims to determine how brain research has evolved over time in terms of papers and impact among countries, and how those various trends vary by areas of brain research. Our results show that over the past 30 years, the number of brain-related papers has grown at a faster pace than the number of papers from all disciplines combined with China being at the forefront of this growth. Different patterns of specializations among countries and funders have also emerged.

1. Introduction

Brain disorders exert a significant and increasing global burden with varying opportunities for prevention and intervention (Feigin et al., 2019; Rehm & Shield, 2019). Over the last 80 years, brain research has gained a lot of traction, culminating in the 1990s which was named “The Decade of the Brain” by President Bush to enhance the visibility of brain research and due to several major breakthroughs related to the brain and the nervous system (Library of Congress, 2020). In the 2000s, the World Health Organization (WHO) underlined the importance of brain and mental health research in the context of a worldwide increase in mental health and neurological conditions. More recently, the science academies of the G7 nations along with seven other scientific academies urged world leaders to develop global brain resources in order to understand, protect, and develop global brain resources (G-Science Academies, 2016). This attention on brain research has led to recent advances such as the sequencing of the human genome, the development of cutting-edge tools for mapping neuronal connections, the increase in resolution and quality of neuroimaging technology, and the rise of nanoscience which have created great opportunities to understand how the brain works in health and disease and integrate these various new methods across scientific fields (NIH, 2021). Brain research has advanced our understanding of the biological substrates of human behavior and its perturbation across a variety of neurophysiological states and disorders. It comprises a diversity of research themes such as mental health, brain health, cognitive function, and basic brain function.

Bibliometrics have previously been used in several articles that attempted to study general brain research (Buchan et al., 2016; Yeung et al., 2017a; Yeung et al., 2017b), or specific brain research topics such as Alzheimer’s disease (Chen et al., 2014; Dong et al., 2019), neuroimaging (Yeung et al., 2019; Wu et al., 2020), brain-computer interfaces (Hu et al., 2016), epilepsy (Wang et al., 2019), microbiota-gut-brain (Zyoud et al., 2019), neuropharmacology (Yeung et al., 2018; Duan et al., 2020), deep brain stimulation (Hu et al., 2017), brain injuries (Li et al., 2018; Qi et al., 2020; Mojgani et al., 2020), neuroethics (Leefmann et al., 2016), neuropathic pain (Chen & Wang, 2020), and music (Albusac-Jorge & Giménez-Rodriguez, 2015). The evolution of brain research in specific geographic areas such as South America, Brazil, and Saudi Arabia have also been covered (Hoppen & Vanz, 2016; Alhibshi et al., 2020; Forero et al., 2020). However, there currently is no recent comprehensive overview of the evolution of brain research and its various specialties over a long period of time. This paper aims to determine (1) how brain research has evolved over time in terms of papers, (2) country rankings in terms of papers and impact, (3) how those various trends vary by areas of brain research.

2. Methods

Data for this paper were drawn from Clarivate Analytics’ Web of Science (WoS) for a 30-year period (1991-2020). The lower bound (1991) of the period analyzed was selected as it is the year when papers’ keywords and abstracts began to be indexed in the WoS. We used a relatively broad definition of brain research, which includes papers published in 513 journals (Appendix 1) as well as those retrieved using a set of 247 keywords and expressions (Appendix 2) chosen by experts in the field and validated. The 513 core brain journals were manually selected based on their title and topic and included most journals indexed in the Neurology & Neurosurgery subfield from the classification developed by the Patent Board (Hamilton, 2003). Keywords were chosen following the method developed by Archambault et al. (2009). Finally, to reduce false positives, we limited the analysis to articles published in journals from fields of biomedical research, clinical medicine, health, and psychology, as well as the subfield of computer science. The final set of papers is based on all papers published in the 513 core journals, as well as the papers retrieved using the set of 247 keywords and published outside the core journals. It totals 2,467,708 papers, which represents 7% of all 33,608,813 papers indexed in the Web of Science over the 1991-2020 period.

Three indicators are used in the analysis: number of papers, specialization, and research impact. We focus on the number of papers published as an indicator of the brain research activity of countries. Each country’s percentage of all global papers is obtained by dividing their number of papers by the distinct number of papers published in brain research at the world level. Specialization in brain research is obtained by dividing the proportion of publications of each country in brain research by the proportion of the world’s publications in brain research. For example, if a country A has 14% of its papers in brain research, but the percentage of brain research at the global level is 7%, the country would have a specialization index (SI) of 2. An SI value above 1 indicates the country has a higher percentage of brain research than would be expected, while an index value below 1 indicates the opposite. Research impact of countries in brain research is obtained through the compilation of the average of relative citations (ARC), which considers the fact that papers across different disciplines and specialities have different citation potential (Sugimoto & Larivière, 2018).

3. Results

Figure 1 presents the evolution of the number of papers at the global level for the 1991-2020 period, both for all disciplines combined and for brain-related papers, and the percentage that brain research represents across all fields. The overall number of papers has grown exponentially over the last 30 years, from about 600,000 papers in 1991 to more than 2 million papers in 2020. The number of brain-related papers has grown faster than the number of papers of all disciplines combined, particularly between 1991 and 2011. During this period, the relative importance of brain research—that is, the proportion of brain-related papers across papers published in all disciplines combined—increased from 5% to 8% and has been relatively stable since then.

Figure 1. Number of papers (all disciplines combined and brain-related research) and percentage of brain-related research across all disciplines, 1991-2020.

The research output in the field is, however, quite heterogenous across countries. Figure 2 shows the distribution of brain-related research around the world, demonstrating a concentration in North America, Western Europe, and Oceania. Among the countries with a sizeable scientific output. The country with the highest level of specialization in brain research is the Netherlands, with an SI of 1.62, indicating that they perform 62% more brain research than expected. This is followed by Israel (1.46), Canada (1.45), the United States (1.41), Sweden (1.37), United Kingdom (1.31), and Switzerland (1.30). At the other end of the spectrum, India (0.44), Iran (0.54), and China (0.60) are considerably less active than expected in brain research.

Figure 2. Specialization in brain research by country. Blue indicates that the country is relatively more active in brain research; orange indicates that the country is relatively less active in the field; grey indicates that the country is performing brain research in the same percentage as expected values. 2011-2020.

The relative contribution of countries in the field has varied significantly over the last three decades (Figure 3). The decline of the United States—also observed across all domains combined—is quite striking. While the country accounted for more than 47% of all brain-related papers in 1991, this percentage is now at 34%. Complementary to this decline is the rise of China’s research activities in the field, which rose from less than 1% at the beginning of this millennium to 17% in 2020 (a growth of 2750%). Other countries whose contribution to brain research is declining includes Japan, whose share of global papers has decreased from 10% in the late 1990s to 5% in 2020; France, which decreased from 6% in 1991 to 4% in 2020; and Germany, which decreased from 9% in the early 2000s to 8% in 2020. Many nations, particularly in Europe, are now taking increasing space in the field: the Netherlands (170% increase in share of papers over the period), Spain (252% increase), Switzerland (162% increase), and Belgium (156% increase). In other parts of the world, notable increase includes the Republic of Korea (4626% increase), Turkey (1036% increase), Brazil (508%) and India (387%).

Figure 3. Percentage of world papers in brain research, by country, 1991-2020. Web of Science database. The top 20 countries with the highest number of papers are presented.

Chart, line chart Description automatically generated

We then sought to assess the contribution of these countries to different subcategories of brain research. Figure 4 demonstrates the SI for each of the five areas of brain research: biomedical research, covering the biological or physiological aspects of research; clinical medicine, covering the clinical aspects; computer science, covering deep-learning-related research; public health; and psychology. Given that the majority of papers in the brain research field are published in clinical medicine, most countries are relatively close to the average (i.e., 1) in this domain. In biomedical research, China, Germany, Japan, France, and India are relatively more active, while the US, the UK, Canada, and Australia are relatively less active. Psychology and public health follow a similar pattern, with Western countries often being specialized in those areas, and Asian countries being relatively less active. In computer science, the relative strength of Asian countries (China, Korea, India, and Taiwan) and Spain is noteworthy.

Figure 4. Specialization in brain research, by area and country, 2011-2020. Specialization is obtained by dividing each country’s percentage of world papers for a given area by their percentage of world papers for all areas combined. Blue (>1) indicates the country is relatively more active in the area; orange (<1) indicates the country is relatively less active in the area; grey (≈1) indicates the country is performing brain research in the same percentage as expected values.

Next, we calculated the scholarly impact of brain research papers for the top 20 countries with the highest number of papers (Figure 5). For all domains of brain research, this demonstrated an overall high scholarly impact for countries such as Denmark, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, and Belgium. However, many other countries have a strong scholarly index in specific categories of brain research, such as the United States, China, Canada, and Australia in the field of computer science.

Figure 5: Scholarly impact, by country and area, 2011-2020. ARC is obtained by dividing each papers’ number of citations by the average citation rate of papers published in the same speciality and year. Blue (>1) indicates a higher scientific impact in the area; orange (<1) indicates a lower scientific impact in the area; grey (≈1) indicates a scientific impact on par with the world average.

4. Discussion and conclusions

Our results show that over the past 30 years, the number of brain-related papers has grown at a faster pace than the number of papers from all disciplines combined, with the Western world leading the charge in terms of specialization. There are likely multiple factors contributing to this growth in the proportion of brain-related research compared to all other disciplines combined: (1) the growth in funding and brain-related initiatives (Grillner et al., 2016), (2) a growth in the various neuroimaging technologies that allow for more precise studies of brain-related phenomena (NIH, 2021), (3) endogenous growth within the discipline (i.e. due to new discoveries and theories), and (4) exogenous growth related to increased awareness (i.e. on mental health) and demands from aging societies. Results have also shown the variation in the research contribution of countries over the past three decades, including the steady decline of the United States of America as a superpower in brain research and China’s rise as a major player with a growth of 2750% over the past 20 years.

While previous articles have used bibliometrics to study various topics of brain research, our study is the first to offer a comprehensive overview of the evolution of brain research and its various specialties through over a long period of time. One of the main limitations of this study is the use of WoS as a bibliometrics source of data which may lead to an underestimation of regional and non-English scientific literature (Glänzel, 1996; Hicks, 1999; Archambault et al., 2006), especially in countries such as China where publishing in Chinese is strongly encouraged by funders and stakeholders, even more so since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic (Larivière et al., 2020). However, the effect of these policies has yet to make a considerable difference in the Chinese research ecosystem (Shu et al., 2022). Furthermore, in interpreting the results of this study, it should be noted that increased research output does not linearly reflect research progress. For example, mental health researchers have lamented the slow progress in treatment of mental disorders despite large investments in basic research (Torrey et al., 2021). With these caveats in mind, our findings provide a large scope snapshot of the evolution of brain research and its funding which may be used as a baseline for future studies on these topics.

Open science practices

Restrictions apply to the dataset used in this paper. The Web of Science data is owned by Clarivate Analytics. To obtain the bibliometric data in the same manner as authors (i.e. by purchasing them), readers can contact Clarivate Analytics at the following URL: https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science/contact-us/. Future versions of this paper may use open data sources or share and aggregated version of the dataset used.

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank Mia Messer and Don Daniel Ocay for their support in the project and their help with the keywords validation.

Author contributions

Conceptualization: MS, VL, CF, DK; Data curation: VL, DK, MS; Formal Analysis: VL, DK; Funding acquisition: VL, CF, MS; Investigation: MS; VL, CF; DK Methodology: VL, MS, CF, DK; Project administration: VL, CF; Resources: VL, CF; Supervision: VL, CF; Validation: MS, VL, CF, DK; Visualization: VL, MS; Writing – original draft: MS, JS, TS, VL; Writing – review & editing: MS, JS, TS, CF, VL, DK

Competing interests

Some of the funding was provided by the Brain Canada Foundation.

Funding information

This research was funded by Brain Canada and the Mitacs program, the Fonds du recherche du Québec doctoral scholarship, and the Canada Research Chair program (grant 950-231768).

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Appendix 1. Keywords used to retrieve papers outside the core journals

BRAIN

ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE

PREFRONTAL CORTEX

CORTEX

AMYOTROPHIC-LATERAL-SCLEROSIS

NEURONS

SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY

DEMENTIA

FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM

FMRI

WHITE-MATTER

FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION

STRESS

SPINAL-CORD

ALS

MEMORY

SCHIZOPHRENIA

PARKINSONS-DISEASE

TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

HUMAN BRAIN

MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS

MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

NERVOUS-SYSTEM

PERCEPTION

NEUROGENESIS

WORKING-MEMORY

STROKE

MAJOR DEPRESSION

COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

LONG-TERM POTENTIATION

NMDA RECEPTORS

AMYGDALA

VISUAL-CORTEX

DENDRITIC SPINES

DEPRESSION

CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID

ANXIETY

ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX

CEREBRAL-CORTEX

NEUROPATHIC PAIN

RECOGNITION

NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS

DENTATE GYRUS

LONG-TERM DEPRESSION

ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN

SYNAPTIC-TRANSMISSION

CORTICAL THICKNESS

HIPPOCAMPUS

PAIN

HIPPOCAMPAL-NEURONS

NEURONAL-ACTIVITY

HUMAN CEREBRAL-CORTEX

SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE

MOTOR CORTEX

A-BETA

RAT-BRAIN

BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT

BASAL GANGLIA

CORPUS-CALLOSUM

DIAGNOSTIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE

MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-SPECTROSCOPY

NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR

NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

MOTOR-NEURON DISEASE

MICROGLIA

ADULT HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS

ATTENTION

SPATIAL MEMORY

CEREBRAL-BLOOD-FLOW

SPINAL-CORD-INJURY

EEG

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

MENTAL-RETARDATION PROTEIN

ASTROCYTES

MENTAL-RETARDATION

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA

EXECUTIVE FUNCTION

CRANIAL RADIATION

ADULT NEUROGENESIS

EPISODIC MEMORY

GRAY-MATTER

COGNITIVE CONTROL

MEDIAL TEMPORAL-LOBE

BIPOLAR DISORDER

AMPA RECEPTORS

PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS

HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS

MOTOR-NEURON

NEURODEGENERATION

PERIPHERAL-NERVE INJURY

NEUROINFLAMMATION

NEURAL ACTIVITY

SPECTRUM DISORDER

CHRONIC PAIN

POSTERIOR-FOSSA TUMORS

DOPAMINE

AMYLOID-BETA

INTRACORTICAL INHIBITION

AUTISM

CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA

TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY

DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

GRANULE CELLS

VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY

CONNECTOME

MOTOR-NEURONS

NEURITE OUTGROWTH

RECOGNITION MEMORY

FUNCTIONAL MRI

NEUROLIGINS

HIGH-GRADE GLIOMAS

SPECTRUM DISORDERS

VASCULAR DEMENTIA

COGNITIVE FUNCTION

LATERALIZATION

HIPPOCAMPAL VOLUME

DOPAMINE NEURONS

REMYELINATION

NEURAL STEM-CELLS

DEEP BRAIN-STIMULATION

PREMOTOR CORTEX

CORTICAL-NEURONS

GLUCOCORTICOID-RECEPTOR

PSYCHOSIS

FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA

MOTOR-NEURON DEGENERATION

BRAIN-STIMULATION

PREPULSE INHIBITION

WHITE-MATTER HYPERINTENSITIES

N-ACETYLASPARTATE

TARDBP MUTATIONS

PARIETAL CORTEX

NORMAL BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

NEURONS BORN

PYRAMIDAL NEURONS

FRAGILE-X-SYNDROME

PTSD

AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN

SEIZURE EXPRESSION

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

AXONAL-TRANSPORT

AXON GUIDANCE

NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH

NEURONAL MIGRATION

TEMPORAL-LOBE EPILEPSY

DECISION-MAKING

LOCUS-COERULEUS

LEWY BODIES

EVENT-RELATED FMRI

MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

CORTICAL REORGANIZATION

EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

CEREBRAL-PALSY

BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER

RETROGRADE-AMNESIA

FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA

LONG-TERM-POTENTIATION

GLIAL-CELLS

NMDA RECEPTOR

BRAIN NETWORKS

ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM

SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB-DISEASE

GLIOMA

FEAR MEMORY

BRAIN-TUMORS

FRONTAL-CORTEX

LAMINA-I NEURONS

MOTOR CORTEX EXCITABILITY

LOCOMOTOR-ACTIVITY

SEIZURES

GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS

FOREBRAIN

ADDICTION

SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS

ALZHEIMER-DISEASE

TDCS

COGNITIVE DECLINE

STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

HEAD-INJURY

DORSOLATERAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

EARLY BRAIN-INJURY

INSULAR CORTEX

MENTAL PRACTICE

ISCHEMIC-STROKE

GLIOBLASTOMA

MEMORY FORMATION

OLIGODENDROCYTES

INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

SENSORY NEURONS

HUMAN MOTOR CORTEX

BRAIN ATROPHY

NEUROCOGNITIVE DEFICITS

SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

BRAIN ACTIVITY

SEROTONIN NEURONS

GLIA

HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM

AMYLOID DEPOSITION

CINGULATE WHITE-MATTER

EPILEPSY

POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX

NEUROTOXICITY

RADIAL GLIA

PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX

MOUSE SPINAL-CORD

SPINAL MICROGLIA

COGNITION

MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

NEUROSCIENCE

MOUSE-BRAIN

FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY

MIDBRAIN DOPAMINE NEURONS

MOOD

POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER

DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS

CA1 REGION

DOPAMINE RELEASE

SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX

ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

HIPPOCAMPAL

DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

CORTICAL CONNECTIONS

MOTONEURONS

MEMORY IMPAIRMENT

CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORY

NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

GYRUS

MEDULLOBLASTOMA

STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY

MAMMALIAN BRAIN

INTERNEURONS

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

UNDERLYING NEUROPATHIC PAIN

NEURONAL OSCILLATIONS

AXONAL INJURY

GENERALIZED EPILEPSY

NEURAL MECHANISMS

CONSCIOUSNESS

ARTERIAL ISCHEMIC-STROKE

DORSAL-ROOT GANGLIA

SENSORIMOTOR INTEGRATION

MOOD DISORDERS

Appendix 2. Core journals for which all papers are included in the analyses

A N A E-Approche Neuropsychologique Des Apprentissages Chez L Enfant

Acs Chemical Neuroscience

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis

Acta Neurochirurgica

Acta Neurologica Belgica

Acta Neurologica Scandinavica

Acta Neuropathologica

Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Acta Neuropsychiatrica

Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Actas Luso-Espanolas De Neurologia Psiquiatria Y Ciencias Afines

Advances In Neuroimmunology

Advances In Neurology

Aging & Mental Health

Aging And Cognition

Aging Neuropsychology And Cognition

Aging Neuropsychology And Cognition

Aktuelle Neurologie

Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders

Alzheimers & Dementia

Alzheimers Research & Therapy

American Journal Of Electroneurodiagnostic Technology

American Journal Of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics

American Journal Of Neuroradiology

American Journal Of Psychiatry

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Degeneration

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Other Motor Neuron Disorders

Annals Of Clinical And Translational Neurology

Annals Of Indian Academy Of Neurology

Annals Of Neurology

Annals Of Neurology

Annual Review Of Neuroscience

Applied Neuropsychology

Applied Neuropsychology-Adult

Applied Neuropsychology-Child

Aquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria

Archives Of Clinical Neuropsychology

Archives Of Neurology

Asn Neuro

Audiology And Neuro-Otology

Auditory Neuroscience

Autism

Autonomic Neuroscience-Basic & Clinical

Baillieres Clinical Neurology

Behavioral And Brain Functions

Behavioral And Brain Sciences

Behavioral Neuroscience

Behavioural Brain Research

Behavioural Neurology

Biological Psychiatry

Biological Psychiatry-Cognitive Neuroscience And Neuroimaging

Biological Psychology

Bipolar Disorders

Bmc Neurology

Bmc Neurology

Bmc Neuroscience

Bmc Psychiatry

Brain

Brain & Development

Brain And Behavior

Brain And Cognition

Brain And Language

Brain Behavior And Evolution

Brain Behavior And Immunity

Brain Cell Biology

Brain Connectivity

Brain Imaging And Behavior

Brain Impairment

Brain Injury

Brain Pathology

Brain Research

Brain Research Bulletin

Brain Research Protocols

Brain Research Reviews

Brain Sciences

Brain Stimulation

Brain Structure & Function

Brain Structure & Function

Brain Topography

Brain Tumor Pathology

British Journal Of Neurosurgery

British Journal Of Psychiatry

Canadian Journal Of Neurological Sciences

Canadian Journal Of Neurological Sciences

Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry-Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie

Cellular And Molecular Neurobiology

Cellular And Molecular Neurobiology

Central European Neurosurgery

Cerebellum

Cerebral Cortex

Cerebrovascular And Brain Metabolism Reviews

Ceska A Slovenska Neurologie A Neurochirurgie

Child Neuropsychology

Clinical Eeg And Neuroscience

Clinical Neurology And Neurosurgery

Clinical Neuropathology

Clinical Neuropharmacology

Clinical Neurophysiology

Clinical Neurophysiology

Clinical Neuropsychologist

Clinical Neuroradiology

Clinical Neuroscience

Clinical Neuroscience Research

Clinical Psychopharmacology And Neuroscience

Cns & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets

Cns Neuroscience & Therapeutics

Cns Neuroscience & Therapeutics

Cognition

Cognitive Affective And Behavioral Neurology

Cognitive Brain Research

Cognitive Development

Cognitive Neurodynamics

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

Cognitive Neuropsychology

Cognitive Neuroscience

Comprehensive Psychiatry

Computational Intelligence And Neuroscience

Cortex

Critical Reviews In Neurobiology

Critical Reviews In Neurosurgery

Current Neurology And Neuroscience Reports

Current Neuropharmacology

Current Neurovascular Research

Current Opinion In Neurobiology

Current Opinion In Neurology

Current Pain And Headache Reports

Current Psychiatry Reports

Current Treatment Options In Neurology

Dementia And Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Depression And Anxiety

Develiomental Cognitive Neuroscience

Development And Psychopathology

Development Brain Research

Developmental Brain Dysfunction

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Developmental Medicine And Child Neurology

Developmental Neurobiology

Developmental Neurobiology

Developmental Neuropsychology

Developmental Neuropsychology

Developmental Neurorehabilitation

Developmental Neuroscience

Dialogues In Clinical Neuroscience

Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology

Electromyography And Motor Control-Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology

Eneuro

Epilepsy & Behavior

European Archivers Of Psychiatry And Clinical Neuroscience

European Archives Of Psychiatry And Clinical Neuroscience

European Journal Of Neurology

European Journal Of Neuroscience

European Journal Of Neuroscience

European Journal Of Paediatric Neurology

European Neurology

European Neuropsychopharmacology

European Neuropsychopharmacology

Evoked Potentials-Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology

Experimental Brain Research

Experimental Brain Research

Experimental Neurobiology

Experimental Neurology

Expert Review Opf Neurotherapeutics

Folia Neuropathologica

Fortschritte Der Neurologie Psychiatrie

Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience

Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience

Frontiers In Behavioral Neuroscience

Frontiers In Cellular Neuroscience

Frontiers In Cellular Neuroscience

Frontiers In Computational Neuroscience

Frontiers In Human Neuroscience

Frontiers In Human Neuroscience

Frontiers In Integrative Neuroscience

Frontiers In Molecular Neuroscience

Frontiers In Molecular Neuroscience

Frontiers In Neural Circuits

Frontiers In Neuroanatomy

Frontiers In Neuroanatomy

Frontiers In Neuroendocrinology

Frontiers In Neuroinformatics

Frontiers In Neuroinformatics

Frontiers In Neurology

Frontiers In Neurology

Frontiers In Neurorobotics

Frontiers In Neuroscience

Frontiers In Neuroscience

Frontiers In Psychiatry

Frontiers In Psychology

Frontiers In Synaptic Neuroscience

Frontiers In Systems Neuroscience

Frontiers In Systems Neuroscience

Functional Neurology

Genes Brain And Behavior

Geriatrie Et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie De Vieillissement

Giornale Di Neuropsichiatria Dell Eta Evolutiva

Giornale Di Neuropsicofarmacologia

Glia

Hippocampus

Human Brain Mapping

Human Brain Mapping

Ideggyogyaszati Szemle-Clinical Neuroscience

Internation Journal Of Neuroradiology

International Journal Of Developmental Neuroscience

International Journal Of Neuropsychopharmacology

International Journal Of Neuropsychopharmacology

International Journal Of Neuroscience

International Neurourology

International Psychogeriatrics

International Review Of Neurobiology

Jama Neurology

Jama Psychiatry

Journal Of Alzheimers Disease

Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders

Journal Of Brain Research-Journal Fur Hirnforschung

Journal Of Cerebral Blood Flow And Metabolism

Journal Of Clinical Neurology

Journal Of Clinical Neurophysiology

Journal Of Clinical Neuroscience

Journal Of Clinical Neuroscience

Journal Of Cognitive Neuroscience

Journal Of Cognitive Neuroscience

Journal Of Comparative Neurology

Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology

Journal Of Computational Neuroscience

Journal Of Developmental And Behavioral Pediatrics

Journal Of Experimental Child Psychology

Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry And Neurology

Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry And Neurology

Journal Of Headache And Pain

Journal Of Integrative Neuroscience

Journal Of Korean Neurosurgical Society

Journal Of Korean Neurosurgical Society

Journal Of Mathematical Neuroscience

Journal Of Molecular Neuroscience

Journal Of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions

Journal Of Neurobiology

Journal Of Neurochemistry

Journal Of Neurochemistry

Journal Of Neurocytology

Journal Of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Journal Of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Journal Of Neuroendocrinology

Journal Of Neuroengineering And Rehabilitation

Journal Of Neurogastroenterology And Motility

Journal Of Neurogenetics

Journal Of Neuroimaging

Journal Of Neuroimaging

Journal Of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

Journal Of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

Journal Of Neuroimmunology

Journal Of Neuroinflammation

Journal Of Neuroinflammation

Journal Of Neurointerventional Surgery

Journal Of Neurolinguistics

Journal Of Neurolinguistics

Journal Of Neurologic Physical Therapy

Journal Of Neurologic Rehabilitation

Journal Of Neurologic Rehabilitation

Journal Of Neurological And Orthopaedic Medicine And Surgery

Journal Of Neurological Sciences-Turkish

Journal Of Neurological Surgery Part A- Central European Neurosurgery

Journal Of Neurological Surgery Part B-Skull Base

Journal Of Neurology

Journal Of Neurology Neurosurgery And Psychiatry

Journal Of Neurology Neurosurgery And Psychiatry

Journal Of Neuro-Oncology

Journal Of Neuro-Oncology

Journal Of Neuro-Ophtalmology

Journal Of Neuropathology And Experimental Neurology

Journal Of Neuropathology And Experimental Neurology

Journal Of Neurophysiology

Journal Of Neurophysiology

Journal Of Neuropsychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences

Journal Of Neuropsychology

Journal Of Neuroradiology

Journal Of Neuroradiology

Journal Of Neuroscience

Journal Of Neuroscience

Journal Of Neuroscience Methods

Journal Of Neuroscience Methods

Journal Of Neuroscience Nursing

Journal Of Neuroscience Research

Journal Of Neuroscience Research

Journal Of Neurosurgery

Journal Of Neurosurgery

Journal Of Neurosurgery-Pediatrics

Journal Of Neurosurgery-Pediatrics

Journal Of Neurosurgery-Spine

Journal Of Neurosurgery-Spine

Journal Of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology

Journal Of Neurosurgical Sciences

Journal Of Neurotrauma

Journal Of Neurotrauma

Journal Of Neurovirology

Journal Of Oral & Facial Pain And Headache

Journal Of Orofacial Pain

Journal Of Parkinsons Disease

Journal Of Pineal Research

Journal Of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

Journal Of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

Journal Of Psychopharmacology

Journal Of Spinal Cord Medicine

Journal Of The American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry

Journal Of The International Neuropsychological Society

Journal Of The International Neuropsychological Society

Journal Of The Neurological Sciences

Journal Of The Neurological Sciences

Journl Of Neuroscience Psychology And Economics

Klinische Neurophysiologie

Lancet Neurology

Lancet Neurology

Language Cognition And Neuroscience

Learning & Memory

Metabolic Brain Disease

Mind Brain And Education

Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery

Molecular And Cellular Neuroscience

Molecular And Chemical Neuropathology

Molecular Autism

Molecular Brain

Molecular Brain Research

Molecular Neurobiology

Molecular Neurobiology

Molecular Neurodegeneration

Molecular Neurodegeneration

Molecular Psychiatry

Multiple Sclerosis And Related Disorders

Nature Clinical Practice Neurology

Nature Neuroscience

Nature Neuroscience

Nature Reviews Neurology

Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Neurobehavioral Toxicology

Neurobiology Of Aging

Neurobiology Of Aging

Neurobiology Of Aging

Neurobiology Of Disease

Neurobiology Of Disease

Neurobiology Of Learning And Memory

Neurobiology Of Learning And Memory

Neurobiology Of Stress

Neurocase

Neurocase

Neurochemical Journal

Neurochemical Research

Neurochemistry International

Neurochirurgie

Neurocirugia

Neurocomputing

Neurocritical Care

Neurodegeneration

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neuroendocrinology

Neuroendocrinology Letters

Neuroepidemiology

Neuroforum

Neurogastroenterology And Motility

Neurogenetics

Neuroimage

Neuroimage

Neuroimage-Clinical

Neuroimage-Clinical

Neuroimaging Clinics Of North America

Neuroimmunomodulation

Neuroinformatics

Neurologia

Neurologia Croatica

Neurologia I Neurochirurgia Polska

Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica

Neurologic Clinics

Neurological Research

Neurological Sciences

Neurological Sciences And Neurophysiology

Neurological Surgery

Neurologist

Neurology

Neurology

Neurology Asia

Neurology India

Neurology Psychiatry And Brain Research

Neurology Psychiatry And Brain Research

Neurology-Genetics

Neurology-Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation

Neuromodulation

Neuromolecular Medicine

Neuromuscular Disorders

Neuron

Neuron

Neuron Glia Biology

Neuro-Oncology

Neuro-Oncology

Neuro-Ophtalmology

Neuro-Orthopedics

Neuropathology

Neuropathology And Applied Neurobiology

Neuropediatrics

Neuropeptides

Neuropharmacology

Neuropharmacology

Neurophotonics

Neurophotonics

Neurophysiologie Clinique-Clinical Neurophysiology

Neurophysiologie Clinique-Clinical Neurophysiology

Neurophysiology

Neuropsychiatric Disease And Treatment

Neuropsychiatric Disease And Treatment

Neuropsychiatrie

Neuropsychiatry

Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychology And Behavioral Neurology

Neuropsychobiology

Neuropsychologia

Neuropsychologia

Neuropsychological Rehabilitation

Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology Review

Neuropsychopharmacology

Neuropsychopharmacology

Neuroquantology

Neuroradiology

Neurorehabilitation

Neurorehabilitation And Neural Repair

Neuroreport

Neuroscience

Neuroscience

Neuroscience And Biobehavioral Reviews

Neuroscience And Biobehavioral Reviews

Neuroscience Bulletin

Neuroscience Letters

Neuroscience Letters

Neuroscience Research

Neuroscience Research Communications

Neurosciences

Neuroscientist

Neurosignals

Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery Clinics Of North America

Neurosurgery Quarterly

Neurosurgical Focus

Neurosurgical Focus

Neurosurgical Review

Neurotherapeutics

Neurotherapeutics

Neurotoxicity Research

Neurotoxicology

Neurotoxicology

Neurotoxicology And Teratology

Neurourology And Urodynamics

Noropsikiyatri Arsivi-Archives Of Neuropsychiatry

Npj Parkinsons Disease

Nutritional Neuroscience

Operative Neurosurgery

Operative Neurosurgery

Otology & Neurology

Pediatric Neurology

Pediatric Neurology

Pediatric Neurosurgery

Perception

Perspectives On Developmental Neurobiology

Pharmacopsychiatry

Progress In Brain Research

Progress In Neurobiology

Progress In Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

Progress In Veterinary Neurology

Psn-Psychiatrie Sciences Humaines Neurosciences

Psychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences

Psychiatry Research-Neuroimaging

Psychiatry Research-Neuroimaging

Psychological Medicine

Psychologie & Neuropsychiatrie Du Vieillissement

Psychology And Aging

Psychoneuroendocrinology

Psychoneuroendocrinology

Psychopharmacology

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Restorative Neurology And Neuroscience

Reviews In The Neurosciences

Revista De Neurologia

Revista Ecuatoriana De Neurologia

Revue De Neuropsychologie

Revue Neurologique

Rivista Di Neuroradiologia

Saggi-Neuropsicologia Infantile Psicopedagogia Riabilitazione

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Schizophrenia Research

Seminars In Neurology

Seminars In Neuroscience

Seminars In Pediatric Neurology

Social Cognitive And Affective Neuroscience

Social Neuroscience

Stereotactic And Functional Neurosurgery

Stroke

Stroke And Vascular Neurology

Surgical Neurology

Techniques In Neurosurgery

Therapeutic Advances In Neurological Disorders

Therapeutic Advances In Neurological Disorders

Translational Neurodegeneration

Translational Neurodegeneration

Translational Neuroscience

Translational Psychiatry

Translational Stroke Research

Trends In Cognitive Sciences

Trends In Neurosciences

Trends In Neurosciences

Turkish Neurosurgery

Visual Neuroscience

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Cognitive Science

World Neurosurgery

Zeitschrift Fur Neuropsychologie

Zentralblatt Fur Neurochirurgie

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Submitted by21 Apr 2023
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Marc-André Simard
Université de Montréal
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