Water is essential for all forms of life on Earth. If you want a healthy society, this is one of the most crucial resources you'll need. Water is the most precious resource on Earth, next only to air. Despite the fact that water made up the majority of the planet, there is only a limited amount of it available for human usage. An attempt was made in this study to investigate the quality of the household drinking water and the groundwater found in the area of South Kantajhar, a small village in Rourkela, also known as the Steel City of Orissa. The data analysis revealed that, with the exception of some parameters, every other parameters are under the allowable range. The quality of the drinking water is poor, however the water quality for doing household work could be accepted. Total 6 source of water has been collected to test and, in the sites, the physicochemical parameters of ground water exceed the permitted limit value which contains tests for turbidity, pH value, iron, total suspended solids. The mean concentration of source 1- turbidity, pH, TSS (Total Suspended Solids), iron is found to be 9.07 NTU, 6.29, 69.33 mg/l, 1.79 mg/l respectively. Similarly, for other 5 sources have these same parameters exceeded the permissible value. Other parameters are Acidity, Alkalinity, Chloride, Magnesium, Sodium, Calcium, Iron, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids which is found under the permissible limit. The first set of samples was collected in the month of February 2023 & the last set was collected in April 2023. During this period, several parameters related to water quality were analyzed in accordance with Indian Standards: IS 10500 (2012): Drinking Water. Additionally, there are rules for sample collection, storage, and analysis. The typical chain of action is described in brief here as well as the health issues faced by the villagers due to high contamination of iron are also included.Show Less
Water Quality Assessment of Household Drinking
Water and Evaluation of Potential Human Health Risk – A Case of South Kantajhar Village, Rourkela, Odisha
A Research Project in Partial Completion submitted
fulfils the requirements for
The Degree of Bachelor of Technology
In Civil Engineering
Roll No: 119CE0017
Under the guidance of
Dr. Rakhee Das
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
To attest that the thesis submitted under the heading “Water Quality Assessment of Household Drinking Water and Evaluation of Potential Human Health Risk – A Case of South Kantajhar Village, Rourkela, Odisha” by Tanvir Ahmed is a record of the original work he completed under my supervision and direction as part of the requirements for his degree for Bachelor of Technology, 2022-2023 in Civil Engineering at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.
So far as I am aware, the subject matter involved in this project has not been submitted to any other educational institution for credit towards a degree or certificate.
Date: Dr. Rakhee Das
Department of Civil Engineering,
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela, Odisha -769008
I, Tanvir Ahmed, Roll No. 119CE0017, with this state that this research project, titled “Water Quality Assessment of Household and Evaluation of Potential Human Health Risk – A Case of South Kantajhar Village, Rourkela, Odisha” represents, to the best of my knowledge, my original work that I accomplished as an undergraduate student at NIT Rourkela, includes nothing that has ever been published or written by anybody else. Other contributions to this study are acknowledged with whom I have collaborated at NIT Rourkela or other sources are acknowledged openly in the dissertation. The " References" sector has properly recognized other researcher’s works cited in this paper have been appropriately identified in the "References" section.
I am fully aware that the NIT Rourkela Senate has the right to rescind the degree awarded to me based on my thesis if any future noncompliance is found.
I am grateful to my guide Prof. Rakhee Das for her guidance, consistent encouragement, and support throughout my work. Her advice and encouragement will be valued for advancing my research work. Her commitment and intent to examine every possibility in the execution of my project have kept me encouraged throughout.
I am also grateful to all of NIT Rourkela's Civil Engineering Department lecturers for providing help and resources in my time of need.
Profs. K. Umamaheswar Rao, the Director of NIT Rourkela, and C. R. Patra, the Head of the Civil Engineering Department at NIT Rourkela, are also to be credited for providing me with all the resources I required to complete my research.
I want to convey my gratitude to all the experts who gave of their time and expertise to meet the project's requirements.
I also want to convey my gratitude to my classmates, who have supported me greatly in completing my research work, either directly or indirectly. Furthermore, I wish to convey my gratitude. to all my seniors for their essential input and suggestions on my project.
Most importantly, I am grateful to my parents, who have always been there for me, supporting and encouraging me.
List of Figures
List of Tables
Water is essential for all forms of life on Earth. If you want a healthy society, this is one of the most crucial resources you'll need. Water is the most precious resource on Earth, next only to air. Despite the fact that water made up the majority of the planet, there is only a limited amount of it available for human usage. An attempt was made in this study to investigate the quality of the household drinking water and the groundwater found in the area of South Kantajhar, a small village in Rourkela, also known as the Steel City of Orissa. The data analysis revealed that, with the exception of some parameters, every other parameters are under the allowable range. The quality of the drinking water is poor, however the water quality for doing household work could be accepted. Total 6 source of water has been collected to test and, in the sites, the physicochemical parameters of ground water exceed the permitted limit value which contains tests for turbidity, pH value, iron, total suspended solids. The mean concentration of source 1- turbidity, pH, TSS (Total Suspended Solids), iron is found to be 9.07 NTU, 6.29, 69.33 mg/l, 1.79 mg/l respectively. Similarly, for other 5 sources have these same parameters exceeded the permissible value. Other parameters are Acidity, Alkalinity, Chloride, Magnesium, Sodium, Calcium, Iron, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids which is found under the permissible limit. The first set of samples was collected in the month of February 2023 & the last set was collected in April 2023. During this period, several parameters related to water quality were analyzed in accordance with Indian Standards: IS 10500 (2012): Drinking water. Additionally, there are rules for sample collection, storage, and analysis. The typical chain of action is described in brief here as well as the health issues faced by the villagers due to high contamination of iron are also included.
Keywords: groundwater, water quality, physicochemical, parameters, pH, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, turbidity, chain-of-custody, IS: 10500 (2012).
Water is the second greatest resource after air. Despite the fact that water made up the majority of the planet, there is only a limited amount of it available for human usage. About 96.5 % of the world's water is found in the oceans., only 3% is fresh water, where less than 1% of this fresh water is drinkable. Put another way, if 100 litters represent the world’s water, about half a table spoon of it is fresh water available for us. Hence, it is important to use this priceless and limited reserve responsibly. Due to the diversity of uses for water, its suitableness must be determined prior to use. Furthermore, water sources must be inspected frequently to see if they are sound or not. Most of the drinking water is generated from groundwater, rainwater, surface water, and the water characteristic of these sources varies. In most cases, groundwater resources are created as water seeps through the soil and fills voids in subsurface rocks and soils. As the water passes through the voids between the soil and rock particles, it is naturally cleaned. However, groundwater can quickly become contaminated with microorganisms and other chemical contaminants because of flows from leaky sanitation systems and infiltration of the leachate from the dumpsite. Water treatment facilities typically treat surface waters, which are then delivered through pipe networks to consumers. As a result, biofilms in water pipes can lead to water contamination as it travels to its final destination. Due to exposure to air contaminants, collected rainwater also tends to get contaminated. During the production, this source may also be polluted, which is a problem in developing countries, where people are increasingly using bottled water for drinking.
Approximately 70% of India's accessible water is contaminated, according to researchers of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute in Nagpur, India (Pani, 1986). Thankfully, the government, the public, and companies have all come to a clear understanding of the importance of contamination control. The majority of nations have reached the point where they see water pollution as a threat and have implemented regulations to stop it. The water act was originally passed in India in 1974, and it has since undergone numerous revisions to become increasingly strict. According to a World Health Organization evaluation of national baseline data submitted by 87 developing nations for the end of 1980, 3 out of every 4 urban residents had access to safe water globally (WHO, 1984). Inadequate water and sanitation are to blame for almost 80% of all sickness and disease; 6 million children are killed by diarrheal diseases annually in underdeveloped nations and contribute to the deaths of up to 19 million individuals, while gastroenteritis affects more than 400 million people (Lee, 1984). Poorly maintained water bodies represent a risk to the ecosystem and are an indication of environmental degradation. Water quality is essential for the sake of the economy and the environment. Therefore, prior to employing the water, its purity must be evaluated. Standard techniques for analysing water quality have been established after years of research. In this article, we briefly outline the typical workflow in the belief that it might come handy to researchers and analysts.
The term "water quality" refers to the degree to which a water body meets certain standards for its chemical, physical, and biological qualities in order to fulfil a certain purpose. Water quality standards are created following extensive study to guarantee that water may be used effectively for its intended purpose. Analysing water quality requires taking readings of specific parameters within a sample of water using standardized procedures to determine if the water is of acceptable quality.
Rourkela is a well-known industrial city in Odisha which has integrated Rourkela Steel Plant. This city is located 413 kilometers south-west of Kolkata along the Kolkata-Mumbai railway route. Rourkela has a population of roughly 641,000 people and covers an area of 265.7 km². It is in the middle of the dolomite, coal and iron ore regions. The city's natural attractiveness is accentuated by the Durgapur hill range, which surrounds it on all sides. As a result of Rourkela Steel Plant's convenient location, the nearby captive power plant, heavy machinery, and fertilizer plant units producing refractory materials, cement plants, and explosives plants, distilleries and over 350 different types of minor and mid-sized industries across the Rourkela and discharging a tremendous quantities of liquid waste products from these factories, the river Brahmani is used for sewage water disposal in the steel city, highly contaminated with pollution.
This current chapter evaluates the literature pertinent to the study's objective, i.e., the state of water quality, and describes prior research projects according to their applicability to the proposed research, despite the vast scope of the literature. The quality of rural residents' water supplies has also been included. Water pollution is the most common and recognized problem in the world, directly as well as indirectly by sewage, by different waste or by human or animal excretion. Drinking such contaminated water or using it to prepare certain foods can lead to new cases of infection. Numerous researchers have examined the water quality standards of various groundwater sources, including tube wells, dug wells, and bore wells, among others. There are a handful of them listed.
Karnchanawong et al. (1993) assessed the well water quality at the Mae-Hia waste disposal site. According to reports, the research area's well water was not safe to drink due to high levels of fecal coliform and moderate levels of nitrate and manganese contamination. The levels of conductivity, colour, total solids , lead , COD, Na, Cu, and chloride in groundwater of wells near the dumping site were found to be significantly greater than those found in groundwater from other locations. According to Zhang et al. (1996), nitrogen fertilizer has caused nitrate contamination in groundwater in 14 cities of Northern China. Herzog (1996) has investigated the effects of mine wastes on surface water and groundwater. According to Mikkelsen et al. (1997), stormwater infiltration has been linked to groundwater contamination. Lind et al. (1998) examined the impact of mining activation on the pH of groundwater sources. Similarly, Maticie (1999) has evaluated how agriculture affects the quality of groundwater in Slovenia. According to reports, the amount of nitrate in Slovenia's 12 major groundwater aquifers exceeds the permissible standard for drinking water.
Andrew Francis Trevett et al. (2007) analyzed the quality of drinking water after it was delivered to three rural towns in Honduras. The survey examined the water quality in 43 households more than 2 years on water collection, storage, and usage practice. According to reports, between the supply and consumption locations, there was a dramatic drop in the quality of the water. A significant outcome of the study is that deterioration of water quality happens on a regular and frequent basis. There was no noticeable difference in the rate of deterioration of water quality depending on the season, and certain households did not experience deterioration more than others. This is important because it implies that there is a persistent and pervasive issue with the way water is handled between collection and consumption, which leads to contaminated drinking water.
Eugene Appiah-Effah et al. (2021) choose 100 households at random in Oforikrom municipality, Ghana and they were surveyed about their prospects for safe water storage and treatment at home. For the purpose of physicochemical and microbiological water quality analysis, Fifty-two points of collection samples and Ninety-seven points of use samples of water from residence were collected. This analysis found that respondents' preferred source of drinking water is sachet water. Because the majority of households (87%, n=46) believe it could provide safe drinking water. This study's findings indicated that water taken from sources is most likely to have deteriorated microbiological quality.
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are the two principal sources of drinking water in Iraq. Due to numerous factors, including the dams built on both of these rivers in Iraq, Syria and Turkey, the decline in local annual rainfall rates, the global climate change and the improper planning for the water has used inside Iraq, both the quantity and quality of these rivers are severely threatened. Using the water quality index technique, Pham et al. evaluated Dong Nai River Basin's surface water quality in Vietnam. 42 monitoring sites were used to gather 8 physio-chemical parameters from surface water samples in order to examine temporal and geographical fluctuations in water quality from 2012 to 2016. The outcomes indicated the river's surface water was somewhat contaminated, and the water quality between monitoring locations changed greatly.
A naturally occurring source of drinking water is groundwater., as Mangukiya et al. (2012) have once again confirmed. As a result, it should be constantly evaluated, just like other natural resources, and the people should be made conscious of the drinking water's quality. The intention of the research was to estimate the Surat city groundwater's water quality index (WQI). These 13 parameters— total hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Cl, nitrate, tds, Fe, boron, sulphate and fluorides—as well as BOD and COD—were taken into account while calculating the WQI. Chakrabarty and Sarma (2011) also examined the quality of drinking water in relation to these factors in Kamrup district of Assam, India. For the study 46 different sampling stations were selected. Their research showed that the local groundwater required some sort of treatment before use.
Selvanayagam et al. (2010) compared the water quality during the summer and monsoon seasons in terms of the presence of heavy metals, Ca, Mg, DO, carbonates, and other parameters. He observed that the cadmium is lowest in the pre-monsoon and the iron is highest in the summer, it suggests that the location of the pollution's source is close to the specific location where fishing is done. He came to the conclusion that water can be used for home purposes based on these facts. According to Nagamani et al. (2015), WHO research states that India still lacks access to safe drinking water. From 9am to 11am in the morning, samples are taken in 4 different places. Other characteristics including sodium, hardness, flame photometry, and nitrate are evaluated using a standard laboratory procedure, while temperature and pH level are calculated using a digital connectivity meter. Because pH levels are based on WHO standards and other values are below WHO standard in Bangalore's rural and urban areas.
The fact that water quality has deteriorated in both urban and rural parts of Asia, Latin America and Africa is noteworthy. It has been analyzed as well in a wide range of water supply configurations, including bore wells, hand-dug wells, piped supplies and even conventional sources. Only a single study (Sutton & Mubiana, 1989) has been found that shows no decline in water quality, despite the fact that other studies have reported results of both improvement and contamination in other samples.
Trinath Biswal et al. (2018) conducted research on Rourkela, Odisha, and states that the water of Rourkela is in poor condition and industrial wastewater that only partially complies with the required standard for discharged water quality is dumped into the Brahmani River. The parameters COD, BOD and NH3 in the river Brahmani's downstream water are significantly higher than average, showing that the river is severely polluted. They also found much higher heavy metal contamination in both ground water and surface water which is caused by industrial pollution.
We now live in a universe of too much data due to how simple it is to generate, collect, and store data (Sorensen & Janssens, 2003). From these large amounts of data, valuable information must be extracted. A case study of the water quality in households drinking water in South Kantajhar, Rourkela is conducted based on observations and chemical analyses.
A significant result of all the study is that water quality decline occurs on a regular and frequent basis. Many studies have found that water quality deteriorates during collection or preservation in the house. More research is done on other topics than water quality decline, such as water supply, hygiene, and wellness. While some research begins with the premise that water quality will decline or will soon decline, others immediately shift their attention to potential solutions. A few publications, however, offer more extensive research into household drinking-water quality. (Mertens et al, 1990; Pinfold, 1990; Jagals et al, 1997; Ahmed et al, 1998: Vanderslice & Briscoe, 1993: Feachem et al, 1978). It is notable that water quality has deteriorated in both urban and rural places around the world. It has also been measured in a wide range of water supply types, such as boreholes, piped supplies, hand-dug wells, tubewells and even traditional sources. Only one study revealed no evidence of deterioration in water quality. (Sutton & Mubiana,1989), although others have shown improvement and contamination in different sources (VanDerslice & Briscoe, 1993). In Rourkela the research found poor water quality and showed the reasons of the deterioration. But there was no treatment system or plant provided by the researcher and no data had been provided about the health effect of the residence of those highly contaminated places. It is obvious that contamination could be introduced at numerous stages during the collection, transport, storage, and usage processes. There is also some concern about the risk of bacterial growth in the storage containers. But most of the researcher skipped about this issue. They did not provide any proper method to collect, transport or storage of water. Last but not the least, there is no proper prediction of the status of water quality in future in any of the research paper.
As already discussed in the introduction about water quality analysis assessments and why it is required to check the water quality if it is under safe zone or not, the study’s main goal is to find out how is the condition of household and drinking water in the village of South Kantajhar, located in the steel city of Rourkela. The small village of Rourkela in the state of Odisha, is picked as the study area for the suggested research work. The precise aims of this study are as follows:
Study about water quality testing and analyzing in different samples.
To obtain the quantitative information of the physicochemical characteristics of water.
Compare the result with standard values of each parameter.
If the result found contamination of water, then point out how much and how often water quality deteriorates in the South Kantajhar village.
Fresh water quality is essential to people's economic, health, and social well-being. Water quality testing and monitoring are essential for preserving secure water supplies and eliminating any risks to public health caused by water contamination.
To provide a conceptual framework for continuous study into how to stop the decline of water quality by documenting the common practice of collection, transport, storage, and use.
Find out what is the health condition of villagers due to water contamination.
Rourkela is one of the most major industrialized centers in Odisha, a mineral-rich state in eastern India. Its latitude is 220° 12' north of the equator, while its longitude is 850 degrees east of the meridian. The altitude of this steel city is 219 meters above sea level. The river Brahmani merges at Vedvyas, which is the confluence of two rivers, Koel and Shankha.
The entire Rourkela region has a tropical monsoon climate similar to the Deccan Plateau. The climatic zone is milder in the Northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau than in the main Deccan region. During the summer, the climate is intense and dry, with high humidity. Pre-monsoon seasons typically see low rainfall whereas the Southwest monsoon typically sees high rainfall. The Southwest monsoon typically begins in the second week of June and ends in mid-September. The climate in the area has four different seasons. There are about 90 rainy days every year, and the average annual rainfall is 137 cm, according to the past records. More than 70% of the region's annual rainfall occurs during the rainy season. Because there is no snowfall in the area, rain is the most common kind of precipitation.
South Kantajhar is a small village in Rourkela, Odisha which is situated behind the campus of National Institute of Technology Rourkela, located at 22.245802478849484, 84.90938187138154 show in figure 1. It has an area of 25,531 m² and population of around 700 people.
A village that is small and not developed may have limited access of clean water. The lack of ground water in a small, underdeveloped village can have significant consequences for the residents. Without access to a reliable source of water, the villagers may struggle to meet their daily needs such as cooking, drinking, and bathing. This can lead to water scarcity, which can exacerbate hygiene and sanitation issues, and contribute to the spread of waterborne diseases. And if the available water is already contaminated, it would be detrimental for them to consume it. This is why the water from this specific location has been chosen for analysis.
Water analysis and evaluation of water quality for human drinking and other domestic uses requires specialized sampling and sample handling methods. The sampling site is chosen at random based on the population, location, and source. The water source of South Kantajhar village is only handpumps. There is total 10 handpumps from which only 6 are working. Total 6 samples have been collected in 3-month January, February, and March 2023. The samples have been collected twice in a month from different water sources in South Kantajhar village. To obtain a representative sample of the purity of household water, three sampling events will be conducted at each sampling point in the study area.
4.2.2 Sample Containers and volumes:
It's crucially important to pay attention to the sample container type. Sample containers should be checked for the absence of analytes of interest and the results recorded, particularly when sampling and analyzing for extremely low analyte levels. Containers are typically made of glass or plastic, however only one of these materials should be chosen. Glass containers, in particular, can absorb trace levels of metals and pesticides, while plastic containers cannot leach silica, salt, or boron. So, it is preferable to use glass containers. For samples containing organic substances, only put them in plastic containers made of fluorinated polymers for instance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The analytes in the samples themselves, as well as the plastic walls of the containers, may have been contaminated by plastic pollution. Avoid plastics if at all possible. However, For the majority of physical and chemical analyses, a 2-L plastic bottle sample has been collected. Larger samples could be needed for some analyses. The same container cannot be used for numerous testing requirements since the methods for collecting and handling each type of test vary. For some parameters like iron and total hardness, samples needed to be preserved by adding preservatives. In this study, HNO3 is used as a preservative for the experiments of iron and total hardness. For instance, In Source -1 sample -1 by adding 2.5 ml HNO3 for 200 ml sample, it is having a pH of 1.32. and for sample-2 its 1.4 pH by adding same amount of preservative.
The parameters of a particular use for the water completely define its characteristics and characteristics of its quality. In this study, physico-chemical parameters of water will be tested from the samples. A number of 12 parameters are being selected that are important for ground water, those are – Alkalinity, Acidity, pH, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Total suspended solids, Turbidity, Iron, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium, Calcium.
4.2.4 Chain–of–Custody Procedures:
Samples will remain unaltered from the time they are collected until the time they are reported if suitable chain-of-custody forms are filled out and followed. This includes keeping tabs on samples from the time they are collected until the time they are analyzed and disposed of. This is called the "chain of custody,". When data is used for litigation or regulation, sample control must be verified. When there is no possibility of litigation, routine sample control can benefit from the use of chain-of-custody procedures. A sample is considered to be in the custody of the person who has physical possession of it, can see it, has taken reasonable precautions to prevent tampering with it, or has placed it in a safe location accessible only to authorized personnel. The key elements of chain-of-custody are described by the procedures outlined below:
Sample labels: Samples are labelled so that they can't be mistaken for something else, and the collector can be named if necessary. To rephrase, proper labelling guarantees that the collector is held responsible for their actions.
Sample seals: Sample seals can be used to detect any unauthorized manipulation of samples prior to examination. Use self-adhesive paper seals that include the sample number, the collector's name, and the date and time the sample was collected. Shrink-wraps made of plastic can also be employed. Before the sample leaves the care of the sampling staff, affix the seal to the container.
Field logbook: In a bound logbook, any information relevant to a field survey or sample will be documented.
Sample delivery to the laboratory: After collection, samples will be shipped to the lab as soon as possible, within 2 days. If faster sample holding times are required, then specific guidelines must be put in place to guarantee timely delivery to the laboratory.
Disposal: Samples will be kept for the project's allotted time period or until the data have been examined and accepted, whichever comes first. Typically, samples are disposed after documentation.
Preservation: The process of gathering a sample and then analyzing it usually takes time. During this time, the sample's composition can be changed. Therefore, appropriate preservation is necessary on the route to the lab after collection and in the lab up until the commencement of analysis. The samples will be analyzed as soon as they arrive at the lab. In the absence of timely analysis, ice or a refrigeration system will be used to maintain a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius.
Analysis: When the samples arrive at the laboratory, the necessary parameters will be analyzed according to standard procedures.
Reporting: The last stage in the water analysis process is to properly report the results in relation to the filed request. Before transferring authority, the report will be verified, and testing samples will be submitted. All information will be recorded in the lab log and, if possible, the database.
All the experiments have been done in Environment Lab, Civil Engineering Department, NIT Rourkela based on availability of the equipment and chemicals. The procedure of determination different parameters of water is shown here.
A solution's acidity or alkalinity can be determined by its pH. One of the most common ways to measure pH is electrometric methods. These techniques rely on measuring the possible difference in the solution under test between a measuring electrode and a reference electrode.
1. pH meter
2. Thermometer (least Count Of 0.5°C)
pH Calibration: In order to calibrate a pH meter, it is necessary to make sure that electrolyte is present at the probe tip. It can be performed by a technician assistant (TA), or the liquid can be blown out of the probe's tip, and the dispenser button can be pushed to obtain some electrolyte.. Any pH readings of natural water outside of the range of 7.0 to 8.9 may signify an electrolyte deficiency and be false. By pushing the I/O key and making sure the meter is in pH mode, which is denoted by the triangle at the bottom of the display above the "pH" label, the device can be turned on. The "CAL" button is hit, and the display begins to flash as the user enters calibrate mode. The CAL key is pressed to cause "CALIBRATE" to appear above the main field once the electrode has been cleaned and placed in the 4.0 buffer. The meter shows P1 in the lower field after showing the calibration slope, indicating that It's set to receive its first buffer point. When the electrode is steady, the meter will beep and show the word "READY" on the screen in addition to the flashing temperature-corrected rate for the buffer. To acknowledge this point, you press the YES key. P2 is then shown in the lower field, indicating that the meter is prepared for the second buffer (7.0), after which the display remains fixed for a brief period of time. When the meter beeps and says "READY," the electrode is cleaned, put in the second buffer, and the YES key is depressed to accept the second point. Measuring mode is automatically entered by the meter, and MEASURE is displayed above the primary display. The EC10 holds onto this calibration until a fresh calibration is input or the instrument loses power.
To measure pH-temperature readings, the electrode tip should be rinsed with deionized water, and then reference electrolyte should be released from the tip by pressing the dispenser button. The readings should be observed until they become stable, as indicated by the "READY" indicator and a beep from the meter. Record the results, including the temperature. If the readings become unstable, additional electrolytes can be dispensed to stabilize them.
Principle: Water's turbidity is an optical characteristic determined by the amount of light that colloidal and suspended particles scatter and absorb.
1. Sample Tubes
The turbidimeter is calibrated before use, and the water sample is collected from the source to be tested.
The sample is then prepared by filtering and poured into the turbidimeter's sample cell.
The measurement is taken by inserting the sample cell into the turbidimeter, and particles in the water are measured by how much light they scatter.
The result is displayed in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) and is recorded along with the date, time, and any other relevant information.
Established protocols are followed to ensure accurate and consistent measurements.
Calibrated and validated instruments are used to measure turbidity.
Principle: One of the analytes specified by the methodologies is total suspended solids (TSS). It is unknown the exact chemical composition of a complete suspended solid. The TSS in a water or wastewater sample is the sum of all the solids that were removed throughout the filtration process.
Filter Holder, Vacuum, (2) 1L Flask w/ Side Arm, (3) 47 mm Filter, Membrane, (4) Hot Air Oven, (5) Balance
The measuring cylinder is used to measure 100 ml of water sample.
A sample is placed in a beaker.
The filter paper's weight is recorded.
The funnel's filter paper is adjusted.
The filter paper is used to convey water to conical flask.
To dry the filter paper, it is placed in the hot air oven.
The filter paper is removed once it has dried.
The filter paper's weight is then determined.
The filter paper's initial weight is then removed from the final weight.
The number of suspended particles in 100 mL of water is the outcome.
Calculate TSS value: mgTSS/L = (Wpost - Wpre) x 1000 / V(L
Principle: "Dissolved solids" refers to all substances that are dissolved in water, including minerals, salts cations, metals and anions." Total dissolved solids (TDS) are made up of dissolved inorganic salts and small amounts of dissolved biological matter. Overall, the percentage of TDS is the sum of the cations (ions with a +ve charge) and anions (ions with a -ve charge) in the water. So, the total dissolved solids test gives us a good idea of how many ions are dissolved, but it doesn't tell us anything about the nature of the ions or how they relate to each other. A high quantity of total dissolved solids (TDS) does not pose a health risk. The TDS concentration is a secondary drinking water standard. Because it is more of an aesthetic issue than a health risk, it is controlled.
Apparatus: (1) Beaker (2) Balance (3) Hot Air Oven (4) Measuring Cylinder
A petridish is obtained.
The petridish's weight is recorded.
The petridish receives filtered water from the TSS process.
Petridish is then placed in the oven.
The oven temperature is set at more than 100° C.
Water evaporates after a while.
The petridish is then removed.
The weight of the petridish is then measured.
The petridish's starting weight is then subtracted from the final weight
The result is the quantity of dissolved solids in 100 mL of water.
Calculate TDS: TDS, mg/L = wt. of dry solids x 1000/ V(L)
Principle: This procedure relies on the ability of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (C10H16O8N2) or its disodium salt to form stable complexes with calcium and magnesium ions. When titrating calcium and magnesium together, Eryiochrome black T is utilized as an indicator.
Standard calcium solution
3. Eriochrome black T indicator solution
Procedure: The volume is adjusted to 100 ml with distilled water after 20 ml of standard calcium solution is pipetted into a porcelain basin for standardization. Then, 1 ml of buffer solution is added, followed by adding 1 to 2 drops of indicator. After that, you'll put in 1 ml of the buffer solution and then add 1-2 drops of the indicator. Drops of titrant are added at 3to5-second intervals while swirling the solution constantly until the reddish tint disappears. At the final point, the colour changes to sky blue.
Total hardness (CaCO3) mg/L = (vol. of EDTA standard solution used in the titration for the sample – vol. of the EDTA solution used in the titration for blank) x 100 x C / vol. of the sample taken for the test
C = x/y = correction factor for standardization of EDTA,
x= vol. of standard calcium solution taken for standardization
y = vol. of EDTA solution used in the titration.
1. Distilled Water - The pH of the distilled water used should be at least 6.O. Water that has a pH under 6.0 needs to be newly boiled for 10 minutes before being cooled to temperature of the room. Deionized water can be utilized as long as it has a pH higher than 6.0 and a conductivity of less than 2 s/cm.
2. Sulphuric Acid
3. Standard Solution of Sulphuric Acid.
4. Phenolphthalein Indicator
5. Mixed indicator Solution.
The first step is to transfer a 20-ml sample using a micropipette into a 100-ml beaker. The sample is titrated with standard sulfuric acid solution until the pink colour noticed by the indicator almost vanishes (equivalent of pH 8.3) if the pH is more than 8.3. The amount of sulfuric acid solution used as a reference standard is recorded. After determining the phenolphthalein alkalinity, the solution is titrated with the standard acid to a light pink colour and then 2-3 drops of mixed indicator are added. After phenolphthalein alkalinity, the amount of standard acid utilized is noted.
|Total alkalinity mg/l =||X / Y x N x 5000|
X = standard sulphuric acid used to titrate to pH 8.3 in ml
Y = standard sulphuric acid used to titrate from pH 8.3 to pH 3.7 in ml
N = normality of acid
Principle: Sodium hydroxide and organic acids combine to generate the matching sodium salts. Acetic acid and lactic acid are mono-carboxylic, malic, and tartaric acids are di-carboxylic, and citric acid is a tri-carboxylic acid. As a general principle, sodium hydroxide and an organic acid will react as follows.
R−(COOH)n + n NaOH = R−(COONa)n + n H2O
Apparatus: (1) Beaker (2) Dropper (3) Burette (4) Measuring cylinder
Methyl Orange Indicator
Sodium hydroxide titrant
A conical flask is taken, and a 100 ml sample is added to it, followed by the addition of 2 to 3 drops of methyl orange indicator solution. The burette is then filled with 0.02 N NaOH solution, and the solution being tested is titrated until the end point is reached, indicated by a faint orange color. The volume of the titrant consumed is recorded as vol.1 in ml.
Calculated methyl orange acidity using the equation:
Methyl orange acidity = (vol.1×1000) / (vol. 3)
Mineral acidity is determined using the following Equation when the 0.02 N NaOH solution, used in titration, is not standardized: -
Methyl orange acidity= (vol.1×0.02×50×1000) / (vol.3)
Phenolphthalein acidity test:
To test acidity using phenolphthalein indicator, a few drops of the indicator are added to a small amount of the solution being tested. Then, a standardized solution of NaOH or KOH is added until the pink or red color disappears, indicating neutrality. The volume of the solution needed to reach neutrality is recorded as vol.2 and calculate total acidity by using equation:
Total acidity = (vol.2×0.02×50×1000) / (vol.3)
Where vol.3 = sample volume.
Principle: Chloride can be titrated with mercuric nitrate due to the creation of mercuric chloride, which is soluble and slightly dissociated. Diphenyl carbazone, when exposed to a pH between 2.3 and 2.8, forms a mauve complex with an excess of mercuric ions, signaling the conclusion of the reaction.
2. Measuring Cylinder
3. Conical Flask
1. K₂CrO₄ indicator solution
2. AgNO3 as a titration agent
A 100 mL of water sample is taken in a conical flask.
Potassium chromate indicator solution is added to the sample, causing it to turn yellow.
A standard AgNO3 solution (0.01 M) is used to titrate the sample until a reddish-brown colour develops, indicating the endpoint has been reached.
The amount of AgNO3 solution that was utilised to reach the target is recorded in step four.
A mean value is determined by performing the titration three times.
The chloride ion concentration in the water sample can be determined by using the formula:
Chloride (mg/L) = (volume of AgNO3 solution used x 35.5 x 1000) / sample volume in mL
Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is a widely used technique for the measurement of heavy metals in a variety of samples, such as water, soil, and biological tissues. The basic principle behind AAS is that atoms in the sample absorb light at specific wavelengths when they are excited, and the degree of absorption is proportional to the concentration of the analyte in the sample. By using this technique iron, Magnesium, Calcium and Sodium is determined.
Sample preparation: The sample, water, is collected and prepared for analysis by appropriate digestion and dilution methods. This may involve the extraction of the heavy metals using acids or other solvents, followed by filtration or centrifugation to remove any particulate matter.
Instrument setup: The AAS instrument is set up and calibrated using standard solutions of known concentration for each heavy metal of interest. The instrument parameters, such as the wavelength and lamp current, are adjusted to optimise the sensitivity and selectivity for the analyte.
Sample introduction: The prepared sample is introduced into the AAS instrument, typically in a nebulised form, using a spray chamber or pneumatic nebuliser. The sample may be aspirated directly into a flame or injected into a graphite furnace, depending on the instrument pattern.
Absorption measurement: The instrument measures the absorbance of the sample at the selected wavelength, which is proportional to the concentration of the analyte in the sample. The absorbance is compared to the calibration curve prepared from the standard solutions to determine the concentration of the analyte in the sample.
Data analysis and reporting: The analyte concentration in the sample is determined using the quality manage data and the calibration curve. The results are reported in the appropriate units (mg/l) and may be compared to regulatory limits or other reference values.
Analytical method and Instruments that are used in this study are listed in Table 1.
Table 1: Analytical method and Instruments
According to the IS: 3025 (Part 11)
|Turbidity (NTU)||-||Rasayan Turbidity Meter||Rakiro Biotech Systems Pvt. Ltd||According to the IS: 3025 (Part 10)|
|Alkalinity (Mg/L)||Titration Method||-||-||According to the IS: 3025 (Part 23)|
|Chloride (Mg/L)||Titration Method||-||-||According to the IS: 3025 (Part 32)|
(Iron, Mg, Ca, Na)
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
|Perkin Elmer||Model No. AAnalyst 200, S/N 200S8011401|
|EDTA Method||-||-||According to the IS: 3025 (Part 21)|
Total Dissolved Solids
|Total Suspended Solids (Mg/L)||
Results are found from 6 sources. 3 samples per source have been collected and preserved for experiments.
First three samples are collected from source-1 from the village South Kantajhar on February 7th, 2023, at 4:36pm, 4:43pm and 4:48pm respectively. The samples are collected from a tube-well provided by the NIT Rourkela shown in Figure 11 by maintaining the proper guideline of sample collection and preservation.
In this source, it is found that the pH is less than the permissible limit, which is a little bit acidic. However, the turbidity is too high for human consumption. The acceptable limit of turbidity according to IS Code: 10500(2012) is 1 NTU and permissible limit in the absence of alternate source is 5 NTU, but an average of 9.07 NTU is found in this source. Total Suspended Solid is also beyond the permissible limit that was clearly shown in the sample’s container. The most noticeable contamination at this location is the large amount of iron. Iron has a permissible limit of 0.3 mg/l whereas 1.79mg/l amount of iron is found from this source. Other parameters are being found in under good condition. All the results are shown in Table 1.
IS Code 10500 – (2012)
|Total Hardness (Mg/L)||55||55||600|
|Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l)||
|Total Suspended Solids (Mg/L)||
This set of samples has been collected from the tubewell provided by Rourkela Municipal Corporation, at the end of February 2023 and found the same results as found in source 1. All the parameters except Turbidity, Iron and Total Suspended Solids are beyond the permissible limit. But the pH we get under the permissible range which is normal. This one is close to the 1st tubewell not more than 100 metres, but in this source, expect pH, turbidity, acidity, TDS, TSS, all the parameters value are more than source 1. Table 2 shows all the results-
Table 3: Results of source 2
IS Code 10500 – (2012)
|Total Hardness (Mg/L)||67||64.33||600|
|Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l)||714||710.33||2000|
|Total Suspended Solids (Mg/L)||62||64.33||50|
About the sources, sources 2 and 3 are in the same line, whereas sources 1,4,5 and 6 are in the same line besides the road of South Kantajhar. The source no. 6 is also provided by NIT Rourkela. But it is the most contaminated source among all the sources. Similarly source 3,4,5 and 6 are being tested and the results of these 4 sources are shown in a single Table 3.
|Parameter||Source 3||Source 4||Source 5||Source 6||
IS Code 10500 (2012)
Total Dissolved Solids
|Total Suspended Solids (Mg/L)||
In this study, it is noticeable that the water of south Kantajhar is not suitable for human consumption. It can lead a lot of water bound diseases. A huge amount of iron has been found in all the sources. The water has a metallic taste. In figure 11 a villager's bucket is seen, which has a reddish-brown colour because of major iron contamination in the water. The high iron content can also cause a serious health hazard. Iron overload is one of the most serious risks associated with too much iron in your water. A condition known as iron overload occurs when the body has too much iron and is unable to adequately remove it. This may result in:
Iron poisoning is another risk of having a lot of iron in your water. This is what happens when you consume a lot of iron in a short period of time. Iron poisoning is a major health problem that can be life-threatening.
It is also found that the water quality is decreasing from source 1 to 6. According to the villagers the water from source 1 is better than other sources and they use this handpump for drinking purpose. Also, source 6 is in worst condition accordingly. This water source is not used for drinking, but rather for cleansing and bathing.
May be due to a drop in groundwater levels, some tubewells are no longer being used. During the summer, the tubewells are mostly abandoned.
In order to figure out whether or not a certain water source is suitable for drinking, testing must be performed. Extensive study has led to standardized methods for evaluating water's quality for a variety of uses. Such criteria are given clearly in this article for the convenience of researchers and analysts. As a result, getting an understanding of the standards and water quality evaluation procedures may be beneficial to them.
In Rourkela, RSP produces vast quantities of waste (solid waste and wastewater) during the production of steel and iron. Large amounts of solid and liquid waste are also produced by other minor and major companies and domestic garbage in the city, which are combined with both surface water and ground water. To be examined in the ongoing study, a set of hypotheses has been constructed from extensive observations on household drinking water management. It is obvious that there are numerous times throughout the collection, transit, storage, and usage processes when contamination might be introduced. In this study, it is found that the iron contamination in water is too much high that beyond the permissible limit. The villagers are using this water for their daily activities and also for consuming. But they are not aware and careful about the threat of using this water as a drinking purpose. And again, there are no alternative sources in this area. Therefore, the current study shows that in order to conserve the village and environment before the environment's assimilation capacity gets saturated, a concerted effort is needed from all societal groups, including the government, industries, and the general public.
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