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Engineering
The Builder's Yard
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The application of scientific principles and knowledge to build “stuff” and solve problems. This is an open access and open peer review community for researchers. Join now, publish your research and review others' work.

Version 1
REPORT
Engineering
Asistente Virtual para el Silabo Universitario
27/11/2023| By
Erick Elvis Erick Elvis Vega Zumaeta ,
+ 1
Juan Daniel Juan Daniel Malpartida Hinojosa

Este documento presenta el desarrollo de un asistente virtual implementado en la plataforma de mensajería Telegram. El bot creado tiene la capacidad de proporcionar información sobre el sílabo de un curso específico y enviar archivos de audio. Se describe la metodología utilizada para el diseño e implementación del asistente, así como los resultados obtenidos y una discusión crítica sobre su eficacia.

Version 1
TECHNICAL NOTE
Engineering
Creación de un sistema neumático en simulador
30/10/2023| By
Moreno Castillo Moreno Castillo Jaime Alberto,
+ 3
Juan Efren Juan Efren Segura Guillen

Este es un manual sobre como armar y conectar un sistema neumático en el simulador FESTO paso a paso, además de también explicar paso a paso un calculo neumático básico que se suele presentar mucho en la carrera de ingeniería en Mantenimiento Industrial.

Version 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Engineering
Crack Detection
26/09/2023| By
LEUL DERIBE LEUL DERIBE ABERA

Abstract The planning, construction, and upkeep of physical structures, including roads, bridges, buildings, and other types of buildings, are the primary responsibilities of civil engineers. Finding cracks and other flaws in structures is one of the more difficult tasks in the field of civil engineering. These flaws can put the structure's stability and safety at risk. A variety of structures, such as buildings, bridges, pipelines, and aircraft components, are all susceptible to developing cracks as a result of inherent flaws. Finding cracks is absolutely necessary in order to guarantee the structural soundness of these assets and guarantee their safety. In this article, we will investigate a variety of techniques and technologies that are utilized for crack detection, as well as the applications for each of these. The construction industry has long recognized the need of building fracture detection as a primary priority. Cracks can emerge in any part of a building, and their presence is typically indicative of problems with the structure or the foundation of the building. Finding these cracks early on is essential for ensuring the security and steadiness of buildings, not only during the construction period but also after they have been built and during their lifetimes. In this review essay, we examine a number of different strategies and methodologies that are utilized in creating crack detection, as well as the benefits, limitations, and difficulties associated with each.

11/09/2023| By
Diego Diego Figueroa Ortuondo

“Análisis de viabilidad para la implementación de un departamento de mercados internacionales en Hamburgo, a partir de la baja de venta, afectada por los aconteceres políticos y sanitarios de los últimos tiempos”.

26/08/2023| By
Daniela Daniela Avila

The new developments of extra heavy crude oil in Orinoco Oil Belt (OOB) will have to affront important challenges. Assuring the resource extraction without impact negatively the original environment will be the most important investment in these remote areas. Restricted access due topographical irregularities, environmental restrictions and lack of production facilities are typical problems in new exploitation OOB areas. The study is based on the technical and economic viability evaluation for the development of new opportunities in Zuata Field; considering volumetric milestones for next 6 years, the new areas and thermal projects represent the most important production booster. Using diagnostic and planning resources as probabilistic analysis, economic evaluations, geologic configurations, possible projected sceneries were obtained to find solutions, in order to achieve the best cost-benefits relationship in exploitation schemes for new fields. As principal results we can mention: - Most optimistic probabilistic prediction allows drilling 36 wells per year. This scheme represents an accumulate increase of 53724 b/d in six years. - Less optimistic probabilistic prediction allows drilling 16 wells per year. This scheme represents an accumulate increase of 35904 b/d in six years. - Six-year field development contemplating temporal facilities is not technically viable. - Data acquisition strategies, focus in decreasing the uncertainty in the geological model must be taken into account in the aggressive exploitation schemes. The results of this study could be used as a decision support and background for others similar business in Orinoco Oil Belt. Since all new ventures are looking for earlier solutions in order to reduce costs and improves profits without having a negative incidence on the environment and the reservoir properties.

26/08/2023| By
Daniela Daniela Avila

El plan de delineación de un yacimiento a partir de la perforación de pozos estratigráficos es una etapa crucial al inicio de cualquier campo productor de petróleo, de esto depende su optima explotación garantizando una mayor cantidad de reservas recuperables durante la vida productiva, ejecutando una menor inversión. Sin embargo, la necesidad de incrementar la tasa interna de retorno para cubrir los gastos operacionales y auto sustentar la inversión, hace que se inicie la etapa de producción sin tener modelos robustos del subsuelo, tal y como es el caso de las empresas conocidas como nuevos desarrollos de la FPO, en las cuales se comienza a desarrollar, a priori, un área determinada del campo conocida como Producción Temprana Acelerada (PTA). El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar una manera óptima de seleccionar una secuencia de perforación de pozos estratigráficos, 10 en este caso, mediante la evaluación y el análisis de un parámetro calculado denominado índice de oportunidad (IO), que incluye tantas propiedades petrofísicas de las rocas, respectividad de los sub-miembros e índice de incertidumbre. Esta metodología permitió jerarquizar la perforación de las localizaciones según la oportunidad que tengan de encontrar arenas productoras y su ubicación en el campo respecto a la data ya adquirida, obteniendo con esto una secuencia donde prevalecen los pozos que aportarán rápidamente mejor calidad y mayor cantidad de información para la explotación de los yacimientos, trabajando paralelamente la delineación como la producción del mismo, rompiendo el esquema tradicional donde el principal parámetro para iniciar la captura de información es la zona con mayor incertidumbre

03/08/2023| By
Ibrahim Ibrahim Ninalowo

With the petroleum industry endeavoring to develop promising oil and gas in deeper water, gas hydrates prevention is a serious concern for oil and gas producing companies producing at conditions in the hydrate region. This paper details lessons learned from the successful field deployment of AA LDHI and proper implementation strategies used for 3 different practical fields as case studies in the Gulf of Mexico. From the 3 field experiences, the AA LDHI has been used to replace the conventional thermodynamic hydrate inhibitor due to over 80% reduction in the cost of treatment and based on other numerous benefits during steady state operations and transition operations where AA LDHI is injected prior to extended shut in and restart for fields producing at low water cut. However the strategy to develop a cost effective chemical management of hydrates for field C producing at high water cut is by pumping methanol or diesel to push down the wellbore fluid below the mud line during planned and unplanned shut ins to delay water production, it also secures the riser with non hydrate fluids. This also shows over 80% reduction in cost of treatment. This illustrates how the AA LDHIs are used in conjunction with more conventional hydrate management approaches to reach an optimal cost effective field hydrate management solution. However this shows that the key to overall success of hydrate prevention is a full integration of a good front end design, a comprehensive deployment and an effective down hole monitoring system.

 413 views
08/07/2023| By
LUIS MANUEL LUIS MANUEL GONZALES CALDERON

El presente trabajo de investigación aplicada forma parte de los proyectos institucionales de investigación y desarrollo en IDAT, titulado: “Monitoreo de Variables de Proceso con Internet de las Cosas y OPC UA en Tiempo Real”, el cual propone el desarrollo de un sistema de prototipo de monitoreo de variables que se miden en los procesos industriales en tiempo real, tales como la temperatura, la presión, el caudal y el nivel. Para la implementación de este prototipo se utiliza hardware y software. El componente de hardware de control principal que se emplea es un Mini PLC o microautómata Módulo LOGO 8 del fabricante alemán Siemens, modelo 12/24 RCE con código de referencia 6ED1052-1MB08-0BA0, que forma parte de un tablero electrónico y eléctrico que se implementa con dispositivos de mando, de señalización, de conectividad de red, de protección entre otros. Para el bloque de software, primero se desarrolla el programa de control que se graba en el PLC y luego se desarrolla una aplicación WEB con una interfaz de usuario que incluye dashboards, donde se visualiza el monitoreo de las variables del proceso industrial. Esta aplicación se conecta a una base de datos MySql Server, que se integra con un Servidor industrial KEPServerEX versión 6.9 bajo el protocolo abierto OPC UA, desarrollado para la integración y comunicación de equipos industriales, sin importar de qué fabricante procedan o de qué protocolo de comunicación o tecnología se trate, OPC UA es el protocolo por excelencia utilizado en la Industria 4.0, llamada Industria Inteligente. El proyecto se destaca porque utiliza herramientas de desarrollo de software Open Source, y en su mayor parte se realiza una implementación nativa desde cero, sin necesidad de usar software industrial desarrollado por alguna compañía de automatización industrial, el cual por lo general siempre es altamente costoso. Por otro lado, se destaca este proyecto de investigación aplicada, por el uso de la Internet de las Cosas, que forma parte de la Transformación Digital de los negocios de las empresas, donde el activo más importante son los datos. En la industria, los datos son capturados por los sensores, estos deben ser almacenados en una base de datos, tratados, consultados, analizados, para la toma de decisiones importantes que beneficien al negocio de la industria. Este proyecto de investigación tiene potencial porque se desarrolla con el enfoque moderno de la Industria 4.0, cuya principal herramienta para la Transformación Digital de la Industria, es la Internet de las Cosas para el uso del Big Data o datos masivos.

 118 views
Version 1
ARTICLE
Engineering
IA DE RECONOCIMIENTO DE FRUTAS CON SU VALOR NUTRICIONAL
03/07/2023| By
Estrellita Marina Estrellita Marina Agreda Castillo,
Valeria Margot Valeria Margot Huamanhuillca Liñan

Este informe presenta un estudio sobre el reconocimiento de 10 frutas comunes (palta, fresa, pera, mango, manzana, naranja, mandarina, plátano, piña y coco) mediante técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y aprendizaje automático, también se utiliza el aprendizaje supervisado y no supervisado para obtener mayor precisión en los resultados. Además, se incluyó información sobre el valor nutricional de cada fruta para resaltar su importancia en una dieta equilibrada y así poder mejorar la atención que dan los nutricionistas a sus pacientes. Por último, la información nutricional presentada permite diseñar dietas equilibradas y prevenir deficiencias nutricionales.

 222 views
01/07/2023| By
Felix Felix Giglberger

In the Global South, urine diverting dry toilets have been successfully tested as feasible tools toincrease sanitation coverage. However, many people desire flush toilets. Some approaches to treatwastewater from flush toilets have been implemented successfully, yet many sanitation projectshave failed because operation and maintenance costs were too high. Biogas production fromwastewater can be seen as a tool that benefits operators directly and tangibly, reducing thelikelihood of sanitation projects to fail due to economic reasons once in operation. However,decentralized treatment systems in the Global South that can cope with larger quantities offlushwater do not provide reliable gas retrieval mechanisms. Fixed-dome digesters (FDDs) canprovide a simple retrieval mechanism without the need for electricity or moving parts, allowing forsustainable gas collection. However, they are not used for treatment of diluted wastes, as this wouldmake them unreasonably large. Urine diverting flush toilets (UDFTs) can save large quantities ofwater due to reduced flushwater consumption for urinations and could therefore enable thecombination of flush toilets with biogas collection.For a specific trade center with a size of 120 person-equivalents in Ghana, the economic andgreenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation benefits of using this combination were compared against astandard anaerobic wastewater treatment approach without biogas collection. It was analyzed howflushwater consumption and co-digestion with food waste affect operational benefits, increasedinvestment costs, and space consumption. This was done by comparing the influences of thedifferent treatment elements used in the two approaches, namely the FDD, Imhoff tank, anaerobicbaffled reactor, urine storage and composting of food waste as an alternative to co-digestion in theFDD. A key underlying assumption was that all water and nutrients would be properly reused.Theoretical calculations were performed using URWARE wastewater data and treatment modellingapproaches that were combined with DEWATS engineering guidelines. An emission modellingapproach was set up to investigate how different flushwater and food waste quantities affectemissions from the compensation tank of the FDD. Additionally, effects of varying LPG and carbonprices as well as effects of leaks and lack of flaring were shown and it was investigated how resultscould be translated to differing user populations.It was found that about 700 USD can be saved per year but additional initial investment cost wouldbe as large as 13,600 USD. Still, 32% of initial investment costs were attributed to urine storage,which may not be needed in some cases. GHG emissions from construction would amortize alreadyafter 1.7 years and 200 tCO2-eq could be mitigated after 20 years of operation. Adjustment with acarbon price of 100 USD tCO2-eq-1 would allow for economic amortization after 8.6 years, resultingin economic savings of 20,400 USD after 20 years of operation. Food waste dosage did not affectthis result significantly, showing that co-digestion is not needed if this carbon price would be ineffect. In conclusion, UDFTs are a powerful tool to mitigate GHG emissions and ensure continuedtreatment system operation in the Global South, however technology diffusion will require adequatefunding mechanisms that can cope with the increased investment costs.

 3 views
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