With the petroleum industry endeavoring to develop promising oil and gas in deeper water, gas hydrates prevention is a serious concern for oil and gas producing companies producing at conditions in the hydrate region. This paper details lessons learned from the successful field deployment of AA LDHI and proper implementation strategies used for 3 different practical fields as case studies in the Gulf of Mexico. From the 3 field experiences, the AA LDHI has been used to replace the conventional thermodynamic hydrate inhibitor due to over 80% reduction in the cost of treatment and based on other numerous benefits during steady state operations and transition operations where AA LDHI is injected prior to extended shut in and restart for fields producing at low water cut. However the strategy to develop a cost effective chemical management of hydrates for field C producing at high water cut is by pumping methanol or diesel to push down the wellbore fluid below the mud line during planned and unplanned shut ins to delay water production, it also secures the riser with non hydrate fluids. This also shows over 80% reduction in cost of treatment. This illustrates how the AA LDHIs are used in conjunction with more conventional hydrate management approaches to reach an optimal cost effective field hydrate management solution. However this shows that the key to overall success of hydrate prevention is a full integration of a good front end design, a comprehensive deployment and an effective down hole monitoring system.
El presente trabajo de investigación aplicada forma parte de los proyectos institucionales de investigación y desarrollo en IDAT, titulado: “Monitoreo de Variables de Proceso con Internet de las Cosas y OPC UA en Tiempo Real”, el cual propone el desarrollo de un sistema de prototipo de monitoreo de variables que se miden en los procesos industriales en tiempo real, tales como la temperatura, la presión, el caudal y el nivel. Para la implementación de este prototipo se utiliza hardware y software. El componente de hardware de control principal que se emplea es un Mini PLC o microautómata Módulo LOGO 8 del fabricante alemán Siemens, modelo 12/24 RCE con código de referencia 6ED1052-1MB08-0BA0, que forma parte de un tablero electrónico y eléctrico que se implementa con dispositivos de mando, de señalización, de conectividad de red, de protección entre otros. Para el bloque de software, primero se desarrolla el programa de control que se graba en el PLC y luego se desarrolla una aplicación WEB con una interfaz de usuario que incluye dashboards, donde se visualiza el monitoreo de las variables del proceso industrial. Esta aplicación se conecta a una base de datos MySql Server, que se integra con un Servidor industrial KEPServerEX versión 6.9 bajo el protocolo abierto OPC UA, desarrollado para la integración y comunicación de equipos industriales, sin importar de qué fabricante procedan o de qué protocolo de comunicación o tecnología se trate, OPC UA es el protocolo por excelencia utilizado en la Industria 4.0, llamada Industria Inteligente. El proyecto se destaca porque utiliza herramientas de desarrollo de software Open Source, y en su mayor parte se realiza una implementación nativa desde cero, sin necesidad de usar software industrial desarrollado por alguna compañía de automatización industrial, el cual por lo general siempre es altamente costoso. Por otro lado, se destaca este proyecto de investigación aplicada, por el uso de la Internet de las Cosas, que forma parte de la Transformación Digital de los negocios de las empresas, donde el activo más importante son los datos. En la industria, los datos son capturados por los sensores, estos deben ser almacenados en una base de datos, tratados, consultados, analizados, para la toma de decisiones importantes que beneficien al negocio de la industria. Este proyecto de investigación tiene potencial porque se desarrolla con el enfoque moderno de la Industria 4.0, cuya principal herramienta para la Transformación Digital de la Industria, es la Internet de las Cosas para el uso del Big Data o datos masivos.
Este informe presenta un estudio sobre el reconocimiento de 10 frutas comunes (palta, fresa, pera, mango, manzana, naranja, mandarina, plátano, piña y coco) mediante técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y aprendizaje automático, también se utiliza el aprendizaje supervisado y no supervisado para obtener mayor precisión en los resultados. Además, se incluyó información sobre el valor nutricional de cada fruta para resaltar su importancia en una dieta equilibrada y así poder mejorar la atención que dan los nutricionistas a sus pacientes. Por último, la información nutricional presentada permite diseñar dietas equilibradas y prevenir deficiencias nutricionales.
In the Global South, urine diverting dry toilets have been successfully tested as feasible tools toincrease sanitation coverage. However, many people desire flush toilets. Some approaches to treatwastewater from flush toilets have been implemented successfully, yet many sanitation projectshave failed because operation and maintenance costs were too high. Biogas production fromwastewater can be seen as a tool that benefits operators directly and tangibly, reducing thelikelihood of sanitation projects to fail due to economic reasons once in operation. However,decentralized treatment systems in the Global South that can cope with larger quantities offlushwater do not provide reliable gas retrieval mechanisms. Fixed-dome digesters (FDDs) canprovide a simple retrieval mechanism without the need for electricity or moving parts, allowing forsustainable gas collection. However, they are not used for treatment of diluted wastes, as this wouldmake them unreasonably large. Urine diverting flush toilets (UDFTs) can save large quantities ofwater due to reduced flushwater consumption for urinations and could therefore enable thecombination of flush toilets with biogas collection.For a specific trade center with a size of 120 person-equivalents in Ghana, the economic andgreenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation benefits of using this combination were compared against astandard anaerobic wastewater treatment approach without biogas collection. It was analyzed howflushwater consumption and co-digestion with food waste affect operational benefits, increasedinvestment costs, and space consumption. This was done by comparing the influences of thedifferent treatment elements used in the two approaches, namely the FDD, Imhoff tank, anaerobicbaffled reactor, urine storage and composting of food waste as an alternative to co-digestion in theFDD. A key underlying assumption was that all water and nutrients would be properly reused.Theoretical calculations were performed using URWARE wastewater data and treatment modellingapproaches that were combined with DEWATS engineering guidelines. An emission modellingapproach was set up to investigate how different flushwater and food waste quantities affectemissions from the compensation tank of the FDD. Additionally, effects of varying LPG and carbonprices as well as effects of leaks and lack of flaring were shown and it was investigated how resultscould be translated to differing user populations.It was found that about 700 USD can be saved per year but additional initial investment cost wouldbe as large as 13,600 USD. Still, 32% of initial investment costs were attributed to urine storage,which may not be needed in some cases. GHG emissions from construction would amortize alreadyafter 1.7 years and 200 tCO2-eq could be mitigated after 20 years of operation. Adjustment with acarbon price of 100 USD tCO2-eq-1 would allow for economic amortization after 8.6 years, resultingin economic savings of 20,400 USD after 20 years of operation. Food waste dosage did not affectthis result significantly, showing that co-digestion is not needed if this carbon price would be ineffect. In conclusion, UDFTs are a powerful tool to mitigate GHG emissions and ensure continuedtreatment system operation in the Global South, however technology diffusion will require adequatefunding mechanisms that can cope with the increased investment costs.
Efforts toward building a sustainable future have underscored the importance of collective responsibility among state and non-state actors, corporations, and individuals to achieve climate goals. International initiatives, including the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, emphasize the need for immediate action from all stakeholders. This paper presents a feasibility assessment focusing on opportunities within the Electric Vehicle Value Chain in Nigeria. The research aims to enhance public understanding of Nigeria's renewable energy sector by sharing preliminary findings. Currently, petroleum fulfills more than 95% of global transportation needs; however, the transition to a sustainable future necessitates energy companies to diversify their portfolios and integrate various renewable energy sources. Investor sentiment is shifting away from traditional fossil fuel industries, making the incorporation of renewable crucial. To facilitate significant progress in the renewable energy sector, the establishment of platforms supporting the growth and diversification of industry players is vital. Knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in this process. This feasibility assessment serves as an initial reference for individuals and businesses seeking technically and economically viable opportunities within the sector.
Water is essential for all forms of life on Earth. If you want a healthy society, this is one of the most crucial resources you'll need. Water is the most precious resource on Earth, next only to air. Despite the fact that water made up the majority of the planet, there is only a limited amount of it available for human usage. An attempt was made in this study to investigate the quality of the household drinking water and the groundwater found in the area of South Kantajhar, a small village in Rourkela, also known as the Steel City of Orissa. The data analysis revealed that, with the exception of some parameters, every other parameters are under the allowable range. The quality of the drinking water is poor, however the water quality for doing household work could be accepted. Total 6 source of water has been collected to test and, in the sites, the physicochemical parameters of ground water exceed the permitted limit value which contains tests for turbidity, pH value, iron, total suspended solids. The mean concentration of source 1- turbidity, pH, TSS (Total Suspended Solids), iron is found to be 9.07 NTU, 6.29, 69.33 mg/l, 1.79 mg/l respectively. Similarly, for other 5 sources have these same parameters exceeded the permissible value. Other parameters are Acidity, Alkalinity, Chloride, Magnesium, Sodium, Calcium, Iron, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids which is found under the permissible limit. The first set of samples was collected in the month of February 2023 & the last set was collected in April 2023. During this period, several parameters related to water quality were analyzed in accordance with Indian Standards: IS 10500 (2012): Drinking Water. Additionally, there are rules for sample collection, storage, and analysis. The typical chain of action is described in brief here as well as the health issues faced by the villagers due to high contamination of iron are also included.
Autonomous electric vehicles (AEVs) hold great promise for the future of automotive engineering, but safety remains a significant challenge in their development and commercialization. Therefore, conducting a comprehensive analysis of AEV development and reported accidents is crucial. This paper reviews the levels of automation in AEVs, their disengagement frequencies, and on-road accident reports. According to the report, numerous manufacturers thoroughly tested AEVs across a distance of more than 3.9 million miles between 2014 and 2022. Disengagement frequencies vary among manufacturers, and approximately 65% of accidents during this period occurred while AEVs were operating in autonomous mode. Notably, the majority of accidents (90%) were caused by other road users, with only a small fraction (∼8%) directly attributed to AEVs. Enhancing AEVs' ability to detect and mitigate safety risks from external sources has the potential to significantly improve their safety. This paper provides valuable insights into AEV safety by emphasizing the importance of comprehensively understanding AEV development and reported accidents. Through the analysis of disengagement and accident reports, the study highlights the prevalence of passive accidents caused by other road users. Future research should concentrate on enabling AEVs to effectively detect and respond to safety risks originating from external sources to enhance AEV safety. Overall, this analysis contributes to the ongoing efforts in AEV development and provides guidance for strategies aimed at improving their safety features.
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent advancements in autonomous electric vehicle (AEV) within the specified region. It elaborates on the progress and comparative analysis of diverse subsystems, including energy storage, cell balancing for battery systems, vehicle charger layouts, electric vehicle motor mechanisms, and braking systems. Furthermore, this paper showcases several prototype autonomous electric vehicles as conclusive study findings.
Noise pollution is increasing in this era as countries' development is faster. This noise pollution causes serious non-auditory effects on human health. As a result, it needs effective controls on noise pollution. Hence, use a natural fibrereinforced composite for acoustical applications. Natural fibre-reinforced composites have various benefits, such as being eco-friendly, easy to manufacture, and effective in cost, and natural fibre improves the sound absorption, mechanical strength, and structural stability of the composite. The present review describes various techniques for measuring the acoustical and mechanical characteristics of natural fibre-reinforced composites. In addition to these acoustical (sound absorption coefficient, sound transmission losses, etc.) and mechanical (tensile, flexural, impact, etc.) characteristics are reviewed. Furthermore, this review paper studied an influencing parameter that affects the acoustical and mechanical characteristics of natural fibre-reinforced composites. these influencing parameters, such as fibre properties, density, porosity, sample thickness, binder amount, and filler material. In natural fibre-reinforced composites, increasing the percentage of the fibre density, binder amount, and filler material enhances sound absorption and mechanical strength, but these parameters have certain limitations, and crossing the limitation decreases the characteristics. reduce the porosity, decrease sound absorption, and increase sample thickness to increase acoustical characteristics. The conclusion states that the acoustical and mechanical characteristics of natural fibre-reinforced composites are enhanced when considering the performance-influencing parameters.
Water alternating gas (WAG) processes are usually applied in gas floods to improve oil recovery. However, the best time to inject gas during WAG enhanced oil recovery process is a major challenge in the petroleum industry. Some of the factors that affect WAG performance were investigated using Schlumberger ECLIPSE 100 dynamic simulator. Simulation of several WAG scenarios before incorporation of optimum time yielded total oil recovery efficiencies between the ranges of 53.6% to 64.7%. The simulation results and regression analysis were used to generate a model for optimum time for gas injection (Topt). The model’s ability to predict Topt was tested using one month and three months WAG cycle. The Topt obtained for one month WAG cycle was 22 days while that of three months WAG cycle was 68 days. The incorporation of optimum time for gas injection improved oil recovery efficiency to 75% and 71% for one month and three months cycles respectively. It could be adduced that the optimum time for gas injection enabled complete mass transfer between the injected gas and the oil including gas trapping such that microscopic displacement efficiency and volumetric sweep efficiency are maximized to achieve maximum oil recovery.