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Piyush Plabon Das

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Political Science
The Challenges for Urban Warfare in the 21st Century?
06/07/2023| By
Piyush Plabon Piyush Plabon Das

Humankind has been engaging in warfare since the dawn of civilisation. The birth of the infantry can be dated back to 600-350 BC when the success of sophisticated, intense, irrigated forms of agriculture sweeping across the plains of Egypt and the Near East meant that a sizeable group of men could divert their attention towards moulding metals into weapons and raising horses to draw chariots. However, it was not just the metals and horses that resulted in the inauguration of the infantry. Rather, it was the complex socio-economic way of life evolving around these settlements that resulted in the need for an infantry ; to defend the town these settlers were a part of or to annex other lands. This was evident for Rome during the third century BC, when it began to expand its territory, against the Greeks and Macedonians towards the east and against the Carthage towards the west and south. Moreover, the three Punic Wars proved that the Roman military infrastructure was well organised and superior to the point that even the relatively smaller infantries could win wars if these wars took place in or around Italy . Essentially, the cities of Italy were paramount to the infantry and its success. Thus, towns and cities have always been crucial plots in warfare.

06/07/2023| By
Piyush Plabon Piyush Plabon Das

The international community is riddled with many issues ranging from climate change to security. Terrorism is one such issue which can have both domestic and international repercussions and these effects can be indiscriminate in its lethality; all can fall victims to terrorism irrespective of their economic status, gender and age. It is a serious threat to a state’s security. Hence, it is to no one’s surprise that counter-terrorism often finds its way into a state’s foreign policy. Although the term “Terrorism” has attained popularity in the modern era, in reality, it is an anomaly that can be traced back to two millennia, for example- the “Sicariis” or the Zealots of Judea targeted and murdered those whom they deemed apostates. Their notorious underground operations against the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean were a way to “send a message” and instil fear . It is remarkable to notice that these tactics have been adopted by different organisations throughout history to carry out acts of terror . Jump-cut to the present day and terrorism has become a scourge for the international community and is one of the premier challenges for conflict resolution. Counter-terrorism too has not yielded the desired result and is playing little role in furthering conflicts. This essay will discuss the nature of this challenge using different case studies and will be divided into three sections. Section I will be a brief introduction to the idea of terrorism and will dissect this universal yet vague concept. This will be done to identify some elements that ignite and legitimise conflict amongst societies which is an important step as it will allow one to tackle the challenge more comprehensively. Section II will discuss how both terrorism and counter-terrorism are furthering conflicts and thereby posing a new challenge in conflict resolution. The focus will be more on the social, economic, political and psychological impacts of terrorism. Finally, Section III will suggest ways of dealing with terrorism in a more philosophical way rather than the usual military method.