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Political Science
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Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of political activities, political thought, political behavior, and associated constitutions and laws. We explain the issues in different aspects of the world such as Wealth & Poverty, Education Inequality, Crime & Violence, and The Environment

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Political Science
The Challenges for Urban Warfare in the 21st Century?
06/07/2023| By
Piyush Plabon Piyush Plabon Das

Humankind has been engaging in warfare since the dawn of civilisation. The birth of the infantry can be dated back to 600-350 BC when the success of sophisticated, intense, irrigated forms of agriculture sweeping across the plains of Egypt and the Near East meant that a sizeable group of men could divert their attention towards moulding metals into weapons and raising horses to draw chariots. However, it was not just the metals and horses that resulted in the inauguration of the infantry. Rather, it was the complex socio-economic way of life evolving around these settlements that resulted in the need for an infantry ; to defend the town these settlers were a part of or to annex other lands. This was evident for Rome during the third century BC, when it began to expand its territory, against the Greeks and Macedonians towards the east and against the Carthage towards the west and south. Moreover, the three Punic Wars proved that the Roman military infrastructure was well organised and superior to the point that even the relatively smaller infantries could win wars if these wars took place in or around Italy . Essentially, the cities of Italy were paramount to the infantry and its success. Thus, towns and cities have always been crucial plots in warfare.

06/07/2023| By
Piyush Plabon Piyush Plabon Das

The international community is riddled with many issues ranging from climate change to security. Terrorism is one such issue which can have both domestic and international repercussions and these effects can be indiscriminate in its lethality; all can fall victims to terrorism irrespective of their economic status, gender and age. It is a serious threat to a state’s security. Hence, it is to no one’s surprise that counter-terrorism often finds its way into a state’s foreign policy. Although the term “Terrorism” has attained popularity in the modern era, in reality, it is an anomaly that can be traced back to two millennia, for example- the “Sicariis” or the Zealots of Judea targeted and murdered those whom they deemed apostates. Their notorious underground operations against the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean were a way to “send a message” and instil fear . It is remarkable to notice that these tactics have been adopted by different organisations throughout history to carry out acts of terror . Jump-cut to the present day and terrorism has become a scourge for the international community and is one of the premier challenges for conflict resolution. Counter-terrorism too has not yielded the desired result and is playing little role in furthering conflicts. This essay will discuss the nature of this challenge using different case studies and will be divided into three sections. Section I will be a brief introduction to the idea of terrorism and will dissect this universal yet vague concept. This will be done to identify some elements that ignite and legitimise conflict amongst societies which is an important step as it will allow one to tackle the challenge more comprehensively. Section II will discuss how both terrorism and counter-terrorism are furthering conflicts and thereby posing a new challenge in conflict resolution. The focus will be more on the social, economic, political and psychological impacts of terrorism. Finally, Section III will suggest ways of dealing with terrorism in a more philosophical way rather than the usual military method.

25/06/2023| By
Oscar Oscar Muñoz Moya,
+ 3
Felipe Felipe Vallespir Lizama

En las siguientes páginas se exponen datos relevantes para entender la desregulación en el mercado del suelo, y la ejemplificación de la violencia estatal en el desarrollo de la política habitacional y la planificación territorial, la cual desde la década de los noventa ha generado profundas desigualdades basadas en el modelo neoliberal y de libre mercado.

Version 1
Political Science
Boletín 8M Aysén - Día Internacional de la Mujer 2023
30/03/2023| By
Oscar Oscar Muñoz Moya

Este boletín se enmarca en una nueva conmemoración del 8M y explora las brechas entre mujeres y hombres a nivel de ocupaciones, dando cuenta de una menor diversidad de oportunidades laborales para ellas. Se suma a esto el impacto de la pandemia que evidencia retrocesos de una década en los avances logrados. Reducir las barreras y estereotipos de género resulta fundamental para impulsar su participación laboral en igualdad de condiciones.

14/03/2023| By
Francesco Saverio Francesco Saverio Bucci,
+ 1
Pier Luigi Pier Luigi Giardino

Con la comparsa del SARS-CoV-2 si sono diffuse due epidemie: una sanitaria ed una informativa. Il virus ha generato un’infodemia senza precedenti, contribuendo ad instaurare un clima di forte incertezza. L’informazione, massiva e ridondante, è stata efficace vettrice anche di propaganda, su scala globale, ad opera di attori statali e non statali. Un vero e proprio atto ostile in cui non è prevista violenza fisica, ma gestione sistematica dell’informazione mediante la manipolazione della sfera cognitiva. Per questo motivo, l’adozione di un atteggiamento di analisi critica attiva da parte di cittadini ed istituzioni e altresì l’implementazione di politiche comuni a livello internazionale potrebbero, indubbiamente, facilitare il contrasto alla guerra cognitiva (c.d. cognitive warfare) e dunque limitarne gli effetti disastrosi.

25/02/2023| By
Star Star Kashman

This article addresses the issue of Google Dorking (“Dorking”): an underestimated, overlooked computer-crime technique utilized by hackers, cyberstalkers, and cybercriminals alike. Google Dorking is the specialized use of the Google Search engine which can be used to uncover sensitive data unintentionally exposed to the public online. Dorking can be beneficial and harmless when used by innocent researchers, journalists, and curious users. But it can be incredibly harmful if utilized by malicious actors. Dorking is behind notorious and infamous computer crimes that appear vastly different on the surface, such as a sextortion case involving over a hundred women including Miss Teen USA, an infamous hack of the Bowman Avenue Dam in New York, an intelligence failure that killed over 30 CIA assets and compromised around 70% of CIA operations internationally, and countless cases where legal officials, celebrities, politicians, families, and the average person alike have fallen victim. Anyone with access to the internet can “Google Dork”; the law currently fails to address the legality of this act or recognize it in the justice system. No one is nearly as safe as they think they are.

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Political Science
Young people’s voices on peace and security in Kyrgyzstan
20/02/2023| By
Kanatbek Kanatbek Abdiev

Young people’s voices on peace and security in Kyrgyzstan Young people in Kyrgyzstan have unique experiences of conflict and can play a crucial role in building peace. But often they are seen as part of a problem rather than as part of a solution – and are overlooked by those responsible for supporting and protecting them. Yet they have shown adaptability, pragmatism and innovation in their responses to the challenging and changing contexts in which they live and work. Based on a participatory workshop with young women and men from southern Kyrgyzstan, this briefing explores barriers they face in having their voices heard. It makes the case for the meaningful inclusion of young women and men in discussions related to peace and security, and recommends ways in which they can be supported to become leaders and role models in their communities.

08/02/2023| By
Aryan Aryan Ibrahim

A paper on how incarceration and racial profiling negatively affect black Americans in the United States of America. This paper focuses on three main areas of collateral consequences: a restriction against public benefits, limited employment and pay, and loss of civil rights in both the prison system and when reentering society where the majority of these black incarcerated individuals were in poverty before incarceration.

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