This article, using mostly the movie clichés, reveals the deep connection between often un-valued literary clichés and the Era of Revolutions in the human history; it is the continuation of the well-known Morphology of the folktale at the same time. For those readers who have idea about the Six main plot archetypes in literature, discovered by Prof Matthew Jockers, such an article is able to provide another one illustration for that concept as well.
|Literary Clichés and the Era of Revolutions|
|A brief explanation for society development|
Many of us, watching movies or reading literary works (hereinafter–works; I am going to use the last term in my paper for marking not only the “traditional work” but also a myth after the artistic processing, movie script, etc.), could see constant repeating of some scenes and episodes. If we enter ″clichés in movies″ in the search bar of the browser, it becomes clear that this phenomenon is well-known to fans of the action genre. Literary specialists gave this definition to literary cliché (hereinafter–cliché)–an idea, event, or detail that’s used so repeatedly in literature or film that it becomes predictable and even boring (MasterClass, 2021). I am very surprised now because under such circumstances the set of clichés in the works has not been properly evaluated and researched as it is possible yet. Someone may deny this my conclusion with mentioning Jack Campbell’s too hyped A Hero with a Thousand Faces. In that case, I would answer that such a work cannot be accepted as a scientific study of the mentioned problem (I would rather call it the hymn to glorify psychoanalysis), because it does not contain a structured list of clichés we usually meet in the works. If a reader of this paper wants to get some idea about the set of clichés in the works, then that person should use the well-known Morphology of the Folktale (Propp, 1968). For those who don't know what I am talking about: Vladimir Propp found out that all the folktales within some Class contain the single structured set of characters’ actions ("functions of dramatis personae") while he was exploring them in the first half of the twentieth century. Today, the scholars would say that all those folktales are obviously descendants of some single archetype; but it is important for us that Propp, without knowing it himself, is the first one who was using the differential calculus (it means taking notes about the characters’ elementary actions in the text of the work in this case), which belongs with mathematics, to exploring literature. As a result, at the moment our study of the set of clichés in the works can reach a fundamentally new level, because scientific theory (according to Steven Hawking, it is some construction in our imagination which, having the minimal number of entered parameters, should explain some range of phenomena and give us predictions that can be checked out with experiment or observation) can only win due to using mathematics. As many of us know, the next step after the differentiation is the integration, but we have to do this act on our own, because, as we can read in the mentioned book, Propp, being only the morphologist of the folktale, could not realize a meaning and value of his own discovery. Continuing to talk about the science papers that may be useful for the set of clichés researchers, I also want to mention article A Novel Method for Detecting Plot (Jockers, 2014): we got a researching of plot in the works at macro level with it (as a result, the fact of the existence of Six Main Plot Archetypes for a set of several tens of thousands (!) of novels is known to us at the moment).
So, reading our favorite books or watching films and documentaries, we need to record single (elementary) actions of characters (further–actions) which have at least three repetitions in independent sources (such are the works which created by competing authors almost simultaneously, the works by authors who belong with the Free World, and the works by dissidents from countries behind the Iron Curtain, etc.; independent sources in this case are needed for minimizing influence of Human Factor (so, such films as the Avatar (Cameron, 2009) and the Skyline (Strause ＆ Strause, 2010) have at least one essentially identical scene: it is situated in the battle episodes)). And what the very first scene should we get met? So, I am always very impressed with the scene which can be called "The Hero jumps down from the edge of the waterfall" (I used ″Hero″ during giving the name to the scene because I have to be using Propp’s terminology in this paper)—such an unplanned cliff-diving can be seen in the Avatar; in order to get some practice with spotting the actions, let's disintegrate it. As a result, we will get some idea about such actions: "The Enemy pursues the Hero," "The Hero suddenly finds himself on the edge of the waterfall," "The Hero jumps down from the edge of the waterfall," and "The Hero escapes." As it can be seen, the differentiation of the works is not a very hard task. And, using the same way, we can spot the actions in a real life, not only in scenes of the works. In this case, let’s watch how action "The Hero punishes the impudence of the strong Enemy" manifests itself:
In some period of time, a giant centipede killed a careless mouse with poison;
In 1828, an adult male sperm whale, being under influence of the testosterone hormone (it was the breeding season), caused the crushing of whaling schooner "Essex", which had not been repaired after storm when that event took place;
In 1879, several thousands of Zulu warriors armed with spears in general destroyed the British infantry battalion, which camp had not been made to be a stronghold.
The attentive reader is able to see that last cases can also be represented as manifestations of action "The Enemy with using the cheating defeats the Hero." So, we can be confident that many manifestations of the actions refer to both the antagonistic characters (like the square root generally has two solutions)—but this phenomenon cannot be confused with influence of the actions on one another (when combined actions are formed).
So, we have already got some idea about elementary characters’ actions. Next, we have to pay attention to a nature of character (it can be positive or negative) within this Cliché Theory, although Vladimir Propp, exploring some Class of folktales, as the morphologist of the folktale had no necessary to do such an act.
Some reader may ask, "How should we interpret the manifestation of the action which refers to both the antagonistic characters?" The Principle of banning is to help us in this case. It must be explained, this theory has been based on the Linear logic so spheres of activity of protagonist and antagonist cannot overlap. Thus, if we meet the mentioned manifestation, it means we automatically get two meanings (one of which refers to the Form when another refers to the Content) at the moment.
I am returning to describing initial methods of the set of clichés researching, and I want to remind that we need to do the integration during exploring of literature. The essence of that process is that we have to put together all the actions obtained with the differentiation, like a puzzle, with the condition that all of them do not contradict one another. It is the main task of this theory (as a result the picture we are going to get may differ from the life we know). And our very first step on this path may be only the creation of the episode which consists of only two characters’ actions (further—episode)—those actions can belong to either one single character or two different characters. In this case, it is very comfortably to explore episode "The Hero helps the Friend, and then the Enemy punishes the Hero (it is quite widespread in the works—so it can be seen in movie The Thirty Nine Steps (Sharp, 1978)). Somebody may ask, "Why only two actions?" Then I would say that, if we recall the Three-Body Problem (it's belong with astronomy), we understand that such a condition has been put because of Chaos theory.
I have spent more than ten years to find the solution of the integral—episode "The Hero causes the Enemy to fall on the ground, and then the Enemy rises on feet" (many people were seeing it, watching the famous Terminator 2: Judgment Day (Cameron, 1991)—in this case I am talking about the scene in which Sarah Connor's team causes the T-1000 cyborg to disintegrate) helped me with this gaining. However, I am going to use a much more simple way at the moment to transmit the essence of the clichés theory to fans of literature and people who simply want to know more about the world we are living in. First of all, I want to tell you that I accidentally (due to the fact that I have got natural education, not humanitarian) have met the concept of ″Freytag's Pyramid″ once which caused me to create a scheme based on it to transmit changing of protagonist’s state of affairs during narration (fig. A1).
Figure A1 (Source: Yaremko)
I have to explain that my depiction of conflict with a long line is based on the scene in which the Hero is very busy for a long time due to having the passion to get a result (it [scene] can be seen in the District 9 (Blomkamp, 2009) while alien Christopher Johnson is collecting the Liquid for some period of time)—this scene can be also represented as the episode in order to get us some unification (let’s call it "The Hero accumulates the food, and then the Hero repeats that action"). Next, the mentioned scheme includes incomplete deterioration of the protagonist's state of affairs: I made such a choice because action "The Hero hangs over the abyss" exists.
If we pay attention to a small set of films (more the Ricochet (Mulcahy, 1991) and the Sherlock Holmes (Ritchie, 2009), and less the Mummy (Sommers, 1999)) which prologue includes action "The Hero causes The Enemy to be imprisoned," and the reason for the conflict between both the antagonistic characters is revealed with action "The Enemy escapes from the custody," we realize that fig. A1 may be more informative (fig. A2).
Figure A2 (Source: Yaremko)
So, observing fig. A2, we see that an addition to fig. A1 is to the left of the Amplitude axis—in this way I am trying to show that it is only our reconstruction (we can argue that the mentioned small set of films does not in any way change well-known structure of the composition of the work). Now, if we attentively look at the real life, we see that fig. A2 is implemented quite often with it (Table A1).
|№||Segment C - D||Segment E - F||Segment F - G1||Segment G1 - H|
|1||Pairs of elementary particles and their anti-particles were formed after the Big Bang||Pairs of elementary particles and their anti-particles annihilated after some expansion of the Universe||About 0.0001 percent of initial number of elementary particles survived due to the Baryonic Non-symmetry of the Universe exists|
|2||Massive and unstable stars of the first generation were formed||Stars of the first generation relatively simultaneously exploded after relatively short period of existing||Much more stable, due to presence of heavy metals, stars of the second generation were formed|
|3||The Mammals and the Dinosaurs almost simultaneously were formed||The Mammals got the dominance of the Dinosaurs||The Mammals survived in the underground (it was their living space for more than 150 millions of years)||The Mammals came out to the surface of Earth after the Dinosaurs’ extinction|
|4||Diversification of organisms on the ground (generally the Dinosaurs) took place||Most of organisms on the ground (generally the Dinosaurs) died out after the falling of the Chicxulub asteroid||Some species of organisms that belonged with different Classes (mammals, birds, lizards, etc.) survived in the underground||Diversification of organisms on the ground (generally the Mammals) took place|
|5||The people of the modern type begun to settle outside Africa||New occupants faced the mass-extinction caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano||Literally a few the humans of the modern type which were living outside Africa survived||The people of the modern type continued their settling outside Africa|
Table A1 (Source: Yaremko)
I think some readers will be interested in the identity of the protagonist of fig. A2 after perusing Table A1. To finding that identity, we have to interpret some set of characters in the works.
I had been exploring the works for almost eighteen years when I made conclusion that there are at most three pairs of determining personae in the society in general: a Lord and Enemy of the Lord; a Traitor of the Lord and a Helper of the Lord; People and a Remnant of the People. I have to say that the process of interpreting characters becomes much more simple after we assume that the Ruler means a phenomenon of higher level—generally Law (another name is Order). So, then Chaos automatically becomes the Enemy (it is very convenient for us because we have a solid base of classical thermodynamics at the moment). After the first pair of characters was seen, it is necessary to add to what was said that only Law governs the society (the People) because of level on which it is placing.
At the moment the question is: "Who is that Traitor?" I am confident that this person is collective First Servant of Law (Servant 1)—collection of charismatic leaders of revolution with remarkable will and intellect who are unable to complete the main task of revolution; this conclusion follows from Table A2, which uses data of fig. A2.
|№||Segment С-D||Segment E-F|
|1||During the English Revolution Oliver Cromwell was fighting King Charles I to get the ending of the abusing with the power||Oliver Cromwell made himself Lord Protector|
|2||At the starting of the French Revolution Maximilian Robespierre was fighting tyranny||Maximilian Robespierre became tyrant|
|3||During the French Revolution Napoleon Bonaparte was being servant of it||Napoleon Bonaparte made himself Imperator|
Table A2 (Source: Yaremko)
I am continuing to interpret characters, and I want to say that the Helper is collective Second Servant of Law (Servant 2) which is collection of principled people in the society (those ones are often dissidents).
So, the Remnant remains (sorry for tautology)—it is clear that it directly indicates mass-extinction in the society during some huge crisis.
Now I want to resume this section, and I have to say in this case that we can realize that the mentioned trajectory on fig. A2 reflects, first of all, changing of status of Law in the society over time since we were introduced with main determining personae of the human society already.
Attentive readers, perusing Table A2, could see that Servant 1 can be told about only with the beginning of the Era of Revolutions—so this theory has limited probability of using and works only on the basis of the Monopoly on the violence. I made this conclusion because in the past extraordinary rulers like Hammurabi, who were staying at the beginning of the civilization and were the first ones to presenting the written codes of laws to people, are not ones to be introduced as First Servants of Law (due to the motives they had—first of all, usurpation of power in the society and personal enrichment).
Figure B1 (Source: Yaremko)
Because we have encountered the concept of "Management" twice, exploring the set of characters in the works (as it was said, Law governs the society with an elected authority), we can say that we are dealing with fractals (those are the objects which look like their parts) at the moment. So, as we can see, the authority in the society is fractal reflection of Law; I am transmitting this phenomenon with fig. B1 currently (as it is known a tree is one of manifestations of the fractals). We can say also that the mentioned existing of two meanings of many manifestations of the actions is the fractal reflection of the existing of two antagonistic forces—the order and chaos; I can add to what was said that in the future during researching society evolution with the set of clichés we should encounter many fractal reflections.
The topic of the power does not let me go—it is just a joke. But at the moment the question is: "Why is always the First Servant distributing resources of the society at the first stage of revolution, not the Second Servant?" If we recall the Second Principle of thermodynamics (it says that chaos has the most probability of spontaneous realization, not the order), we see a similar picture (so the beginning of the Big Bang is singularity). The reason for that is the existence of the Law of balance which says: the negative determining person usually has some physical advantage over the opponent. It is formulation for this law: the sum of moral and physical qualities for each determining person in the society is a Constanta (A+B=Constanta). It is not difficult to show that, if Chaos is not armed with lure of illegal pleasures, it is not able to realize its destructive role in the society; there is the similar case: if Servant 1 has not got extraordinary charisma and personality, the society is safe for a long time—which is usually unreal.
It must be said that the current section gives the only opportunity to see, albeit schematically (remember, it is only a reconstruction), the First Service for Law—activities of Servant 1 before rebellion against Order. It is because the First Service is reflected in the works only fragmentarily since "history is always being written by winners" and in all the works (which constantly glorify the Second Service) there is simply no place for losers. Even tragedies, like the Tale of the Mummy (Mulcahy, 1998), cannot be exception of this rule, although they do not show triumph of Servant 2. If fans of literature want to see those a few relics of the First Service in the works, they should, first of all, pay attention to prologue which often represents the Hero's Happy Life (like in the Peppermint (Morel, 2018)); then attention should be paid to Characters' Memories about the Villain's Positive Activities before his/her Moral Decline (a good example of which is Gus Conroy’s describing of happy life his wife Arlene had until her falling under the power of the Objects after the finding of the key to non-existent room 10—TV series Lost Room (Harkcom ＆ Baxley, 2006) is meant).
I have already mentioned episode "The Hero causes the Enemy to fall on the ground, and then the Enemy rises on feet"—in this case it is very useful to describe how, being under the influence of a powerful emotional impulse, Servant 1 needs a relatively short period of time to make, with help of the method of punishment and reward, the society to formally serve Law (segment C-D of fig. A2; situation for Chaos on it may be described with action "The Criminal gets the imprisonment" (we can see it with Lord Blackwood's imprisonment in the mentioned Sherlock Holmes)).
Figure A3 (Source: Yaremko)
Point D on fig. A2 marks that moment, in which a potential barrier of desire for illegal pleasures reveals itself. It must be said, that Servant 1 feels the fear of losing power over the society at the moment, and the mentioned fear can be seen with the desire to illegally continue being in the power—but all the social groups itself, being tired of keeping Law in mind, are not paying the special attention to those events. Action "The fugitive has the foot caught by the obstacle"—it can be seen in the finale of the Mortal Engines (Rivers, 2018)—is to confirm my words very well; it also can help to understand the events from fig. A3 which able to transmit the mentioned potential barrier with distortion of trajectories of the level of fidelity to Law for the First Servant and the Second Servant.
If the reader is interested in origin of this concept (I am focusing now on the mentioned distortion of trajectories), I say that I borrowed it from the graph which is able to show changing of the velocity of some physical body over time when that body is under the influence of some constant force (fig. B2); and it [graph] can represent the speed of light in vacuum as the potential barrier to not be reached for physical bodies (but not for some elementary particles).
Figure B2 (Source: Yaremko)
Another example of the potential barrier is the force of the electromagnetic repulsion between two protons—only interiors of stars have such a temperature the mentioned potential barrier to be overcome (it must be understood that, without overcoming it, light of stars and life on planets both are not possible).
If we go to fig. A3 for learning about Second Servant’s activities, we see that while the Traitor is trying to realize ambitions for the power, Servant 2, being inspired by the example of predecessor, is ignoring temptations of Chaos and actively promoting Law in the society (section D-E of fig. A3). As a result, Servant 2 is able to keep the opponent out of realization of Servant 1’s coup attempt for some time but doomed to stop doing that due to the fear of revenge of the First Servant (section E-F of fig. A3). Thus, the First Service (the essence of which is the fear of punishment for bad things and the desire for reward for good thing) is not able to give Law the achieving of goal this person needs—the total perishing of Chaos in the society for a long run (action "The Hero has the failure" which can be seen in the Romancing the stone (Zemeckis, 1984)—in this case I keep in my mind protagonist's failed attempt to climb a tower—can confirm last words very well).
Figure A4 (Source: Yaremko)
If we return to activities of Servant 1 at the moment, we see that that person, for the sake of having the unlimited power in the society, occupying the place in the society that was intended for Law, essentially unleashes Chaos (the works depict this phenomenon with such actions as "The Criminal bribing the policeman" (it is an example of usual corruption) and "The Criminal flees from the prison"; it is illustrated with fig. A4 which graphically shows the changings of statuses of Servant 1 and Chaos in the society over time (I got the status changing trajectory for Chaos from similar concept for Order)).
Figure A5 (Source: Yaremko)
If we pay attention to fig. A5 (which shows the changing of Second Servant's status in the society over time) at the moment, we additionally see an imprisonment of Servant 2 after cowardice and betrayal of Law this person shows. As you are guessing now, the described decrease of standard of living is a result of revenge from the Usurper. Table A3 is able to show how it happened in history more than once (just follow the blue line on schemes).
|№||Segment D-E (fig. А3)||Segment E-F (fig. А3)||Segment F-F1 (fig. А5)|
|1||Crown prince Dan of the Yan state arranged the attempt on the life of King Zhen of the Qin state to prevent a possible usurpation of his domain||Assassin Jin Ke could not accomplish the task||King Zhen of the Qin state invaded Yan state to take revenge|
|2||Ishida Mitsunari was trying to stop Tokugawa Ieyasu’s arising after Toyotomi Hideyoshi died||Ishida Mitsunari lost the battle of Sekigahara||Ishida Mitsunari was executed by Tokugawa Ieyasu’s order|
|3||Great Britain and France were trying to stop revanchism of Germany after that country attacked Poland||The British army units and the French army units were encircled in the city of Dunkirk||France was being occupied and Great Britain was being bombed by armies of Nazi Germany|
|4||Yulia Tymoshenko was trying to defeat Viktor Yanukovych in the 2010 presidential election||Yulia Tymoshenko lost the 2010 presidential election||Yulia Tymoshenko was being imprisoned for political reasons by Viktor Yanukovych’s initiative|
Table A3 (Source: Yaremko)
Next, if we pay attention to the changing of status of Order, we see that the decrease of the standard of living of the Assistant means Law is supposed to be having a minimal number of followers in the society (it becomes clear at the moment why is not the status of the Lord reaches the mark 0 (Level 1) on the Amplitude axis during described falling down, when Servant 1 makes the revolt)—so in this case we see how action "The Servant sacrifices life for the Master" (which is very common) is revealing itself.
Because we now have some idea about the fidelity the Helper has for the Lord, we should look at fig. A5 again. So, we can spot the concept of ″Death ″ on it for three times—in two of them that concept has symbolic meaning (the ″Death of the Master″ within this theory means the lowering of status of Law in the society, and the ″Death of the Hero″ means the lowering of the standard of living for Servant 2), and in the only one—a real meaning (so Servant 1 must be killed (executed) or imprisoned till the end of the life). Thus, the mentioned action can be represented as the combination of such actions as "The Enemy harms the Hero" and "The Enemy dies". That is because the mortal physical life of organisms which consist of billions of cells on our planet is the fractal reflection of the moral activities of Servant 1, at some point of viewing (segment A-E of fig. A3).
This the longest event can be described with action "The Hero cuts the chain" (as in the Captain America: The Winter Soldier (Russo ＆ Russo, 2014) during the fight in the elevator Steve Rogers rips off a magnetic bracelet out of a wall) very well—at the moment I am talking about process of Second Servant’s overcoming the potential barrier of the lure of illicit pleasures by completely ignoring threats from the Betrayer (Table A4 (just remember, that Chaos is the antagonist of it)).
|№||Segment C-D (fig. А4, gray line)||Segment E-F (fig.А4, gray line)||Segment F-G (fig. А3, blue line)|
|1||The National Convention arrested Maximilian Robespierre||Maximilian Robespierre was released from the custody by his followers||The military defeated Maximilian Robespierre’s followers|
|2||The Anti-Napoleon coalition army defeated Napoleon’s army in the "Battle of nations″ near the city of Leipzig||Napoleon Bonaparte fled from the island of Elba||The Anti-Napoleon coalition army defeated Napoleon’s army near the village of Waterloo|
|3||The Entente countries defeated Germany in WWI||Europe lost its advantage over Germany after WWI||The Anti-Hitler Coalition defeated Nazi Germany in WWII|
|4||The Orange Revolution of 2005 stopped Viktor Yanukovych’s try to become the President of Ukraine||Viktor Yanukovych became the President of Ukraine in 2010||The protesters at Independence Square in Kyiv-city defeated Viktor Yanukovych’s criminal regime in 2014|
Table A4 (Source: Yaremko)
What awaits Servant 1’s criminal regime (which generally includes the society) after to such actions of the Assistant? If we look at segment E-F on fig. A3, we see that the Traitor is very careful and tries to avoid conflicts with mighty players (the society for example), but the political repression against the opponent gradually is pushing him right into ″Arms of Chaos″. Due to the last explaining, activities of Servant 2 during this period can represent action "The Hero makes the weapon" (in this case I like that scene from the Anthropoid (Ellis, 2016) in which German soldiers are preparing their machine gun to shooting), which belongs to large family of actions "The Hero makes the tool for the salvation" (those are all the actions of characters that are similar in essence; the concept of "Family of actions" directly follows from Propp’s concept of ″Functions of dramatis personae″).
Roots of Servant 1’s falling are situated at point G in which two events are synchronically occurring: the Helper proves complete loyalty to Order and Chaos completely fills the mind of Servant 1 with itself (we are obviously spotting action "The Hero hits the Enemy with the enemy’s own weapon" at the moment, and it can be seen in the final fight of the Silent Trigger (Mulcahy, 1996)). As a result, the First Servant has to start a war against a mighty opponent (this conflict (segment G-H), as it can be seen from fig. A2, is the fractal reflection of Traitor’s rebellion against Law (segment F-H); I have to add that, if we think about the Ice Age, we see that the conflict with the mighty opponent means the person's careless night departure from the campfire right into the hunting area of predators belonged with the Cat Family). At the beginning of this adventure the Betrayer is supposed to be receiving some benefits but it is safe to say that after reaching point G the criminal regime is doomed. Now, returning to Scheme A2, we see that during the event of Collapsing the status of Law rises very fast due to mass extinction (which is symbolic or real) of the Usurper's followers. If we pay attention to Scheme A5, we see the gradual restoration of Servant 2’s status in the society (since only this person can fill power vacuum) and the beginning of long process of restoring for the Remnant (Scheme B3).
|German patriots were being repressed after Adolf Hitler got the power|
|Territory of Germany was being divided after defeating in WWII|
|Russia was being hit economically after the collapsing of the USSR|
Figure B3 (Source: Yaremko)
Since we have already seen how the status of Law in the society can be restored by Order after the event of Collapsing, then we can better understand the reason for defeating of the First Ministry. Now, the chaotic attempt of revanch can be clearly realized as returning to the state of equilibrium (fig. A6). It is because methods with which Servant 1has tried to overcome Chaos in the society are very similar to chaotic methods.
Figure A6 (Source: Yaremko)
Despotisms, like Russia and China, cannot be successful in economic and politic in the distant future due to each of them is simultaneously a counterpart and a source of Chaos;
Progressive western democracies, which often like to acting according to the Realpolitik Principle, cannot be successful economically and politically in the distant future because in the international arena each of them is some analogue of the First Servant;
Countries that have real respect to Law (like the Baltic States) should be successful in economic and politic in a long run;
Countries which want to have promotion from Law have to experience the First Service Crisis with all its consequences.
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I give my gratitude to Boris Yaremko and Tetyana Yaremko (she passed away eight years ago), my parents; to Oleksandr Tymoshenko, the algebra teacher, and Tetyana Pankova, the teacher of math analysis; to Lesya Dzhurynska, a good friend from the city of Vinnytsia.
I am Serhii Yaremko who was born 11.29.1979 in the city of Vinnytsia (Ukraine). I am the citizen of Ukraine. I am the former school teacher of physics and informatics, and I am exploring the set of the clichés in the works currently. If you want to connect with me, then write on this e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Serhii Yaremko (05.23.2023)
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