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The scientific study of the human mind and behavior. Dealing with all things human from mental health and illness to peak performance and experience. This is an open access and open peer review community for researchers. Join now and publish your research and review other's publications

04/07/2023| By
Cateri Cateri Muro

This reflection of practice is based on a case that has been carried out on four sessions of music therapy with client L, in the medical clinic area of the San Jose hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2022. The cause of hospitalisation was an ischemic stroke, which resulted in a left-sided hemiplegia. The Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) technique Patterned Sensory Enhancement known as (PSE), is used in order to provide rehabilitation for the left arm, promoting, in addition to the motor rehabilitation process, a safe space to rebuild her own recovery narrative, in a favourable way, through a comprehensive person-centred approach.

20/05/2023| By
Grace Grace Rutherford,
Nicholas Nicholas Rutherford

This paper explores the correlation between binge eating behaviors and depression symptoms in adolescents. Understanding this relationship is crucial for effective diagnosis and treatment of these prevalent mental health conditions. The study involved 100 adolescents aged 13-19 years, utilizing standardized scales to measure binge eating behaviors and depression symptoms. Results showed a positive linear correlation (R = ~0.52) between binge eating behaviors and depression symptoms. Specific questions related to "boredom and eating habits" and "guilt after overeating" were significant predictors of depression symptom severity. Similarly, the depression symptom "feeling hopeless about the future" significantly predicted binge eating behavior severity. Consideration of comorbid mental health conditions is important for assessing and treating eating disorders. However, limitations included convenience sampling, lack of diversity, small sample size, and potential response bias. Future research should investigate causal relationships, underlying factors in binge eating disorder, and additional predictors for a comprehensive understanding of mood and eating disorders.

03/02/2023| By
Saina Saina Kakkar

The adoption of online-based learning and the internet has had both a positive impact on students. This study aims to understand how social media literacy, guardian supervision, and self-discipline affects Online Privacy Risk during the Covid19 pandemic in India. This paper elaborated a quantitative method with SEM-PLS to raise the comprehension of the phenomenon studied. A questionnaire was voluntarily responded to approximately 300 high school students who engaged in online-based learning. The structural equation modeling estimation indicates that social media literacy, guardian supervision, and self-discipline influences Online Privacy Risk. However, guardian supervision failed in promoting students' self-discipline. These findings suggest that both social media literacy and guardian supervision needs to be penetrated to reduce the impact of Online Privacy Risk in the teaching and learning process. This is the first step for schools and parents’ alertness in assisting and considering the appropriate and safe media using technology

19/12/2022| By
John Robert John Robert Rilveria

This paper utilised a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design comparing the experiences of 17 parents who use; and 23 parents who do not use psychotropic medicine for their children diagnosed with autism. The main objective is to identify the factors influencing their decision-making process. Quantitative analyses revealed that attitude towards treatment significantly differentiates parents who use (with more positive attitude levels) and parents who do not use (with more negative attitude levels) prescribed medicines. Furthermore, treatment attitude has been found to have significant association with three treatment decision variables. There was a low negative correlation with treatment cost and a high positive correlation with treatment belief and perceived behaviour severity. In the qualitative analysis, six factors were identified that influenced parents’ decision to use or not to use medicine: (1) perceived mental health condition; (2) perception towards autism diagnosis; (3) doctor’s prescription and recommendation; (4) beliefs and attitudes towards treatment; (5) perceived necessity and expectation of treatment decision which include perceived improvement of the child (from parents who decided to have both therapy and medication and from parents who decided to have only therapy); and, (6) the problems encountered. Integrating both the quantitative and qualitative data led to the formulation of a treatment decision model that explains the interaction of five major variables (child, parent, doctor, decision, and treatment) in the decision-making process from which the parent variable, specifically perception and beliefs towards treatment directs the decision to use on not to use such treatment.

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The development of the Filipino coping strategies scale
19/12/2022| By
John Robert John Robert Rilveria

The development of the Filipino Coping Strategies scale was based on the qualitative data on the resilience of Filipinos and the ways by which they cope with stressful life experiences and the quantitative data on foreign measures of coping. Integration of both data led to the formulation of nine coping strategies: cognitive reappraisal (pagsusuri), social support (paghingi ng tulong), problem-solving (pagtugon), religiosity (pagkarelihiyoso), tolerance (pagtitiis), emotional release (paglabas ng saloobin), overactivity (pagmamalabis), relaxation/recreation (paglilibang), and substance use (pagbibisyo). Initially, the scale was composed of 45 items with five items under each domain. This was pilot tested to 627 male and female Filipinos aged 18 above. Reliability analysis revealed items that are internally consistent with each other resulting in the reduction of items to 37. Furthermore, construct validity was established via a) factor analysis through principal components analysis extraction method and varimax rotation method and b) test for convergent validity by correlating each domain of the Filipino Coping Strategies scale with the corresponding domains of Ways of Coping by Folkman and Lazarus and the COPE Inventory by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Independent samples t-test revealed significant differences among males and females in each coping strategy which served as the basis for norm groups. The Filipino Coping Strategies scale is a four-point Likert scale which aims to measure the coping strategies of Filipinos towards stress and generates a coping dispositional profile which can be used to aid in the assessment of coping behaviors.

01/12/2022| By
Saeed Saeed Saeedi,
Zahra Zahra Saeedi

The purpose of the present study was to predict emotional intelligence based on the Prosocial Personality in people aged 16 to 56 living in Tehran during the COVID-19 era with descriptive and correlational methods. 92 people (43 women and 49 men) were selected from among the 16 to 56-year-old people living in Tehran during the COVID-19 period of 1400-1401 as the available sample. Data collection was in library and field. Research tools included emotional intelligence questionnaire (MSEIS) and Prosocial Personality (PSB). Due to the spread of the COVID-19 virus and to prevent the spread of the disease, relevant questionnaires were created through the Porsall system, and the link was provided to the participants for answering. The research data was analyzed using SPSS-26 software with two methods of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In descriptive statistics, mean, standard deviation, frequency tables and relevant charts were used, and in inferential statistics, according to the research method, regression and Pearson tests were used to check research hypotheses. The results of the regression test of the main hypothesis of emotional intelligence and Prosocial Personality are significant (r=0.000) and Prosocial Personality predicts 14% of emotional intelligence changes in people. Also, the sub-hypotheses of the research showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and its dimensions, including evaluation of emotions in oneself and others, regulation of emotions and perception and understanding of emotions with a Prosocial Personality with a probability of 99% (P<0.01).

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Sadism is a Lower-Order Facet of Schadenfreude
10/11/2022| By
Drew Drew Parton,
David David Chester

Sadism represents a predisposition towards enjoying the suffering that we cause others. However, this conceptualization of Sadism closely abuts that of schadenfreude—the tendency to find pleasure in others’ suffering. The relationship between trait Sadism and trait schadenfreude has gone understudied. Using latent construct modeling with a cross-sectional and diverse sample of 322 undergraduate participants, we found that the bi-factor model of Sadism and schadenfreude that best fit the data articulated Sadism as a sub-facet of schadenfreude. Sadism was more strongly related to physical aggressiveness, anger, and antagonism than schadenfreude, suggesting a distinct nomological profile. Future research should seek to identify the mechanisms that translate a passive, schadenfreudic disposition into actual acts of Sadistic aggression.

09/11/2022| By
Nina-Alisa Nina-Alisa Hinz,
+ 1
Agnieszka Agnieszka Wykowska

Humans are influenced by the presence of other social agents, sometimes performing better, sometimes performing worse than alone. Humans are also affected by how they perceive the social agent. The present study investigat-ed whether individual differences in the attitude toward robots can predict human behavior in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). Therefore, adult partic-ipants played a game with the Cozmo robot (Anki Inc., San Francisco), in which their task was to stop a balloon from exploding. In individual trials, only the participants could stop the balloon inflating, while in joint trials al-so Cozmo could stop it. Results showed that in joint trials, the balloon ex-ploded less often than in individual trials. However participants stopped the balloon earlier in joint than in individual trials, although this was less bene-ficial for them. This effect of Cozmo joining the game, nevertheless, was in-fluenced by the negative attitude of the participants toward robots. The more negative they were, the less their behavior was influenced by the presence of the robot. This suggests that robots can influence human behavior, although this influence is modulated by the attitude toward the robot.

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Harnessing placebo effects to regulate emotions
09/11/2022| By
Darwin Darwin Guevarra,
+ 1
Jason Jason Moser

Successful emotion regulation is essential for promoting psychological and physical health (DeSteno et al., 2013; Sheppes et al., 2015). However, people often experience difficulties regulating their emotions. Even with optimal self-regulation capacity, people have problems managing their feelings when fatigued or stressed (Grillon et al., 2015; Raio et al., 2013). Therefore, it is essential to find ways to make self-regulation less difficult. Placebo effects, which are brain-body responses to an inert treatment and the psychosocial context in which it is delivered (Ashar et al., 2017), offer an avenue to address these issues since they may regulate emotions automatically (Braunstein et al., 2017). In this review, we focus on placebo effects that use a placebo object or procedure to regulate emotions. This chapter has four goals. First, we discuss placebo effects and their mechanisms. Second, we review evidence of placebos regulating emotions. Third, we discuss the ethical dilemma in using placebos to regulate emotions and highlight work on placebos without deception. Lastly, we discuss basic science and translational application questions and suggest directions for future research.

07/11/2022| By
Thomas Thomas Metherell,
+ 3
Amy Amy Orben

Background Social isolation is strongly associated with poor mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing social restrictions disrupted young people’s social interactions and resulted in several periods during which school closures necessitated online learning. We hypothesise that digitally excluded young people would demonstrate greater deterioration in their mental health than their digitally connected peers during this time. Methods We analysed representative mental health data from a sample of UK 10–15-year-olds (N = 1387); Understanding Society collected the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in 2017-19 and thrice during the pandemic (July 2020, November 2020 and March 2021). We employed cross-sectional methods and longitudinal latent growth curve modelling to describe trajectories of adolescent mental health for participants with and without access to a computer or a good internet connection for schoolwork. Outcomes Adolescent mental health had a quadratic trajectory during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest mean Total Difficulties score around December 2020. The worsening and recovery of mental health during the pandemic was greatly pronounced among those without access to a computer, although we did not find evidence for a similar effect among those without a good internet connection. Interpretation Digital exclusion, as indicated by lack of access to a computer, is a tractable risk factor that likely compounds other adversities facing children and young people during periods of social isolation. Funding British Psychological Society; School of the Biological Sciences, University of Cambridge; NIHR Applied Research Centre; Medical Research Council; Economic and Social Research Council; and Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge. Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest. Funding Statement This study was funded by the British Psychological Society; the School of the Biological Sciences, University of Cambridge; the NIHR Applied Research Centre; the Medical Research Council; the Economic and Social Research Council; and Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge.

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