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Genesis Block
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This is an Open Access and Open Peer Review community at the vanguard of spreading and disseminating scientific knowledge and impactful discoveries to academics, professionals, researchers, and citizens worldwide. The aim of this community is to publish research about blockchain and blockchain-related discoveries managed by an Editorial Board of international professionals specialized in this technology. Blockchain and distributed-ledger technologies (DLT) allow the building of new infrastructures that enable open and trustworthy decentralized environments. Blockchain networks exist in a state of continuous consensus and automatic consistency checks enabling new trustworthy ways of communicating and transferring value with tremendous implications into our society. Join our community, and start reading, commenting, publishing, and collaborating with other researchers and decentralized technologies advocates.

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18/04/2024| By
Stéphane Stéphane Caporali

This article aims to explore the affinity between thermodynamic and blockchain. An approach is presenting consisting of comparing the PoW process and an inverse Carnot cycle with the proposal of abstract space-time parameters. This opens a thought on where the trust is and how to model the state machine associated with blockchain consensus towards a possible architecture based on a layer model with a consensus layer. This paper presents a theoretical approach to fundamental issues related to blockchain and is both educational.

24/10/2023| By
Sihao Sihao Hu,
+ 3
Ling Ling Liu

This paper provides a systematic analysis of the opportunities, challenges, and potential solutions of harnessing Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 to dig out vulnerabilities within smart contracts based on our ongoing research. For the task of smart contract vulnerability detection, achieving practical usability hinges on identifying as many true vulnerabilities as possible while minimizing the number of false positives. Nonetheless, our empirical study reveals contradictory yet interesting findings: generating more answers with higher randomness largely boosts the likelihood of producing a correct answer but inevitably leads to a higher number of false positives. To mitigate this tension, we propose an adversarial framework dubbed GPTLENS that breaks the conventional one-stage detection into two synergistic stages − generation and discrimination, for progressive detection and refinement, wherein the LLM plays dual roles, i.e., AUDITOR and CRITIC, respectively. The goal of AUDITOR is to yield a broad spectrum of vulnerabilities with the hope of encompassing the correct answer, whereas the goal of C R I T I C that evaluates the validity of identified vulnerabilities is to minimize the number of false positives. Experimental results and illustrative examples demonstrate that AUDITOR and CRITIC work together harmoniously to yield pronounced improvements over the conventional one-stage detection. GPTLENS is intuitive, strategic, and entirely LLM-driven without relying on specialist expertise in smart contracts, showcasing its methodical generality and potential to detect a broad spectrum of vulnerabilities. Our code is available at:

Version 1
Consensus, Cycle of Information and Blockchain Engine
19/04/2023| By
Stéphane Stéphane Caporali

The creation of blockchain technology is generally dated to that of Bitcoin in 2008. However, the main question, perhaps the question of all the questions: “How to reconcile governance and decentralization? ?” is still open. The question is all the more critical in the case of permissionless public blockchain. An original approach, inspired by the concepts of thermodynamics, is presented in this article: the Blockchain Engine and its ideal information cycle. Some ideas are presented on the resilience of a blockchain, from the point of view of the information cycle. The object is to open new approaches in support of the industrial governance of the blockchain.

27/10/2022| By
Ahmed I. Ahmed I. Taloba,
+ 6
Choonkil Choonkil Park

Blockchain technology must have sparked widespread interest, applications associated with data monitoring, banking sectors, computer security, the Internet of Things, and food chemistry to the healthcare sector and cognitive science. The use of multimedia in the healthcare architecture also allows for the storage, processing and transmission of patient information in a wide range of formats such as images, text and audio over the Internet using various smart particles. However, managing large amounts of data, including findings and images of each individual, increases human effort and increases protection risks. In this paper, to address these problems by using IoT in healthcare improves the performance of patient care while lowering costs by efficiently distributing healthcare resources. Nevertheless, various attackers can cause a variety of risks in IoT devices. To avoid these problems, Blockchain technology has been identified as the most effective method for maintaining the secrecy and security of control systems in real-time. This should provide a security architecture for healthcare multimedia content using blockchain technology by producing the hash of every information so that any transition or modification in information, as well as any breaches of medicines, would be evidenced across the whole blockchain platform.

20/07/2022| By
Álvaro Álvaro Jiménez Mesa

The maturity of the financial sector is pushing institutional centralization to the extreme. The irruption of Blockchain technology seems to be celebrated as a way to evade the barriers and asymmetry of a system increasingly biased. Decentralized Finance has inaugurated a new stage where capital trading has a whole new meaning. Not only has it originated new crypto assets, but it has also bred the development of new protocols and markets that establish an accessible, fair and transparent financial system. The detachment from conventional finance lies in disintermediation, automation and decentralization. Automated Market Makers make up the paradigm in which Decentralized Exchanges operate. Specifically, Uniswap served as the precursor protocol of this model satisfying the supply and demand of liquidity providers and traders through automatic platforms of reserves or Liquidity Pools. By combining these elements with the Constant Function Market Maker configuration, Uniswap AMM achieves an optimal trading solution in decentralized markets while maximizing capital efficiency. In parallel to Uniswap, numerous facilities are settled in the environment for cryptoasset trading. This ends up incubating an ecosystem that promotes symbiosis and interoperability resulting in fluctuation of values, being subjected to considerable risk. Nevertheless, this context is the right place for High Frequency Trading, that makes use of strategies such as arbitrage. This project will culminate in the proposal of a tool that can offer utility in executing these operations.

20/07/2022| By
Álvaro Álvaro Jiménez Mesa

What do we really know about Blockchain? Talking about the Bitcoin revolution without really knowing what is happening behind this innovation is common. Truth is that we cannot separate the financial phenomenon from the technology that supports it. Ethereum is the network that has given birth to the well-renowned system of Decentralized Finance. The creation of a secure, democratic and efficient environment for decentralized markets has only been possible thanks to the automation of Smart Contracts. In the face of so much transformation, we must be aware of the risks, limitations and weaknesses of Blockchain technologies, especially in the early stages of a proposal that has not yet reached its maturity. We will go through the fundamental vectors of innovation, from the foundations of Blockchain architecture to Smart Contracts in Ethereum, presenting case studies that allow us to conceive the value of this innovation in a pragmatic way. The Decentralized Finance ecosystem has fostered High Frequency Trading that exploits with the high volatility of the securities traded in these markets. For the agents involved in these activities, it is a challenge to keep up with price information from the different platforms of the framework. We will conclude the project with the development of a Price Oracle, an application that will provide reliable, immediate, updated and accurate information of prices disposed in different protocols of the environment for numerous assets. The utility offered by this API could potentially be integrated with strategies such as arbitrage in DeFi.

07/04/2022| By
Stéphane Stéphane Caporali

In the period that has passed, many projects in the form of proof of concept have been developped, and the most famous blockchain like Bitcoin and Etherium are old enough to start thinking about industrial projects and research trends in a more mature approach. This document aims to ask questions from the perspective of the relationship between consensus mechanisms and blockchain governance tools, and more generally, research and industrial need. Two research trends are presented, as likely to emerge in the coming years. This article ends with a reflexion on the life cycle of blockchain technology, regarding the current period.

Version 2
Les technologies blockchain au service du secteur public
23/06/2021| By
Perrine Perrine De Coëtlogon,
+ 4
Pierre Pierre Boulet

Les technologies blockchain combinent des innovations à des solutions informatiques existantes sur des systèmes informatiques distribués. Elles modifient de façon décisive la façon dont les organisations, même concurrentes, émettent et transfèrent en confiance des données ou des actifs numériques1 , sans passer par une structure centrale de contrôle. Il peut sembler paradoxal de réfléchir aux applications de la blockchain dans le secteur public, alors que son origine, au travers de l’apparition du bitcoin, avait un objectif précis : désintermédier des institutions étatiques et des tiers de confiance dans les fonctions régaliennes de l’émission de la monnaie et du suivi des transactions financières et de leur enregistrement. Si cette antinomie est historiquement légitime, les objectifs de ce document sont d’expliquer pourquoi il convient de distinguer la philosophie originelle de la blockchain de sa capacité fonctionnelle, de montrer comment depuis plusieurs années elle a fortement évolué et a su démontrer sa compatibilité avec un environnement réglementé et sa maturité technologique. D'ailleurs aujourd’hui, vouloir parler de « LA » blockchain2 est un exercice vain. Elle se décline désormais sous différentes formes avec des caractéristiques communes (distribution, registre, transparence, traçabilité, immutabilité, sécurité) mais aussi des différences significatives quant aux méthodes de gouvernance, d’authentification des acteurs et de confidentialité des transactions. L’enjeu de ce document est de montrer que le secteur public peut bénéficier des caractéristiques uniques offertes par les technologies blockchain, tout en respectant ses valeurs et en offrant une meilleure expérience et une confiance renforcée à l’usager du service public français et européen.

21/06/2021| By
Stéphane Stéphane Caporali

This document describes the computational models associated with blockchain and, in a second step, what is for blockchain the shutdown problem. He then asks questions about the link between shutdown problem, computation, and governability in a blockchain project. This document aims to contribute to the implementation of industrial good practices. At the same time, it opens questions to possible areas of research.

28/02/2021| By
Steve Steve Schepman

This paper discusses several areas in the real estate and mortgage industries that a blockchain could be applied to and grow from. Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that contains a ledger recording transactions hosted on the platform of tokenized assets, which smart contracts govern using transaction protocols. After interviewing many players in the mortgage industry, it is apparent the mortgage industry is centralized around institutions like Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. However, the point of sale, home closing and ownership processes are somewhat disconnected from these behemoths. This paper discusses interviews and a customer survey that garner the efficiency and cost problems the mortgage industry is currently facing. These problems include manual processing of documents, time consuming information verification, lack of privacy, communication issues and lack of technological systemization in the recording process. This paper proposes solutions handling document and information verification for Loan Applicant Report creation and uploading to the LOS. It discusses simplifying real estate transactions themselves with the blockchain. It lastly discusses the idea of forming a land registry on a blockchain because many countries do not have access to sufficient land records. This paper finds that all three are good use cases for a blockchain application, but blockchain technology could start and grow from one of these applications. A blockchain-based mortgage system should be made to connect credit information verifiers, banks and homebuyers, process their documents and make the mortgage process faster.

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